CELTIC FAIRY TALES
The Wooing of Olwen
after the birth
of Kuhuch, the son of King Kilyth, his mother died. Before her death she charged
the king that he should not take a wife again until he saw a briar with two
blossoms upon her grave and the king sent every morning to see if anything were
growing thereon. After many years the briar appeared, and he took to wife the
widow of King Doged. She foretold to her stepson, Kuhuch, that it was his
destiny to marry a maiden named Olwen, or none other, and he, at his father's
bidding, went to the court of his cousin, King Arthur, to ask as a boon the hand
of the maiden. He rode upon a grey steed with shell-formed hoofs, having a
bridle of linked gold, and a saddle also of gold. In his hand were two spears of
silver, well-tempered, headed with steel, of an edge to wound the wind and cause
blood to flow, and swifter than the fall of the dew-drop from the blade of reed
grass upon the earth when the dew of June is at its heaviest. A gold-hilted
sword was on his thigh, and the blade was of gold, having inlaid upon it a cross
of the hue of the lightning of heaven. Two brindled, white-breasted
greyhounds, with strong collars of rubies, sported round him, and his courser cast up
four sods with its four hoofs like four swallows about his head. Upon the steed
was a four. cornered cloth of purple, and an apple of gold was at each corner.
Precious gold was upon the stirrups and shoes, and the blade of grass bent not
beneath them, so light was the courser's tread as he went towards the gate of
King Arthur's palace.
Arthur received him with great ceremony, and asked him to remain at the
palace; but the youth replied that he came not to consume meat and drink, but to
ask a boon of the king.
Then said Arthur, "Since thou wilt not remain her; chieftain, thou shalt
receive the boon, whatsoever thy tongue may name, as far as the wind dries and
the rain moistens, and the sun revolves, and the sea encircles, and the earth
extends, save only my ships and my mantle, my sword, my lance, my shield, my
dagger, and Guinevere my wife."
So Kilhuch craved of him the hand of Olwen, the daughter of Yspathaden
Penkawr, and also asked the favour and aid of all Arthur's court.
Then said Arthur, "O chieftain, I have never heard of the maiden of whom
thou speakest, nor of her kindred, but I will gladly send messengers in search
And the youth said, "I will willingly grant from this night to that at
the end of the year to do so."
Then Arthur sent messengers to every land within his dominions to seek for
the maiden; and at the end of the year Arthur's messengers returned without
having gained any knowledge or information concerning Olwen more than on the
Then said Kilhuch, "Every one has received his boon, and I yet lack
mine. I will depart and bear away thy honour with me."
Then said Kay, "Rash chieftain! dost thou reproach Arthur? Go with us,
and we will not part until thou dost either confess that the maiden exists not
in the world, or until we obtain her."
Thereupon Kay rose up.
Kay had this peculiarity, that his breath lasted nine nights and nine days
under water, and he could exist nine nights and nine days without sleep. A wound
from Kay's sword no physician could heal. Very subtle was Kay. When it pleased
him he could render himself as tall as the highest tree in the forest. And he
had another peculiarity-so great was the heat of his nature, that, when it
rained hardest, whatever he carried remained dry for a handbreadth above and a
handbreath below his hand; and when his companions were coldest, it was to them
as fuel with which to light their fire.
And Arthur called Bedwyr, who never shrank from any enterprise upon which Kay
was bound. None was equal to him in swiftness throughout this island except
Arthur and Drych Ail Kibthar. And although he was one-handed, three warriors
could not shed blood faster than he on the field of battle. Another property he
had; his lance would produce a wound equal to those of nine opposing lances.
And Arthur called to Kynthelig the guide. "Go thou upon this expedition
with the Chieftain." For as good a guide was he in a land which he had
never seen as he was in his own.
He called Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd, because he knew all tongues.
He called Gwalchmai, the son of Gwyar, because he never returned home without
achieving the adventure of which he went in quest. He was the best of footmen
and the best of knights. He was nephew to Arthur, the son of his sister, and his
And Arthur called Menw, the son of Teirgwaeth, in order that if they went
into a savage country, he might cast a charm and an illusion over them, so that
none might see them whilst they could see every one.
They journeyed on till they came to a vast open plain, wherein they saw a
great castle, which was the fairest in the world. But so far away was it that at
night it seemed no nearer, and they scarcely reached it on the third day. When
they came before the castle they beheld a vast flock of. sheep, boundless and
without end. They told their errand to the herdsman, who endeavoured to dissuade
them, since none who had come thither on that quest had returned alive. They
gave to him a gold ring, which he conveyed to his wife, telling her who the
On the approach of the latter, she ran out with joy to greet them, and sought
to throw her arms about their necks. But Kay, snatching a billet out of the
pile, placed the log between her two hands, and she squeezed it so that it
became a twisted coil.
"O woman," said Kay, "if thou hadst squeezed me thus, none
could ever again have set their affections on me. Evil love were this."
They entered the house, and after meat she told them that the maiden Olwen
came there every Saturday to wash. They pledged their
faith that they would not harm her, and a message was sent to her. So Olwen
came, clothed in a robe of flame-coloured silk, and with a collar of ruddy gold,
in which were emeralds and rubies, about her neck. More golden was her hair than
the flower of the broom, and her skin was whiter than the foam of the wave, and
fairer were her hands and her fingers than the blossoms of the wood anemone
amidst the spray of the meadow fountain. Brighter were her glances than those of
a falcon; her bosom was more snowy than the breast of the white swan, her cheek
redder than the reddest roses. Whoso beheld was filled with her love. Four white
trefoils sprang up wherever she trod, and therefore was she called Olwen.
Then Kilhuch, sitting beside her on a bench, told her his love, and she said
that he would win her as his bride if he granted whatever her father asked.
Accordingly they went up to the castle and laid their request before him.
"Raise up the forks beneath my two eyebrows which have fallen over my
eyes," said Yspathaden Penkawr, "that I may see the fashion of my
They did so, and he promised them an answer on the morrow. But as they were
going forth, Yspathaden seized one of the three poisoned darts that lay beside
him and threw it back after them.
And Bedwyr caught it and flung it back, wounding Yspathaden in the knee.
Then said he, "A cursed ungentle son-in-law, truly. I shall ever walk
the worse for his rudeness. This poisoned iron pains me like the bite of a
gad-fly. Cursed be the smith who forged it, and the anvil whereon it was
The knights rested in the house of Custennin the herds-man, but the next day
at dawn they returned to the castle and renewed their request.
Yspathaden said it was necessary that he should consult Olwen's four
great-grandmothers and her four great-grand-sires
The knights again withdrew, and as they were going he took the second dart
and cast it after them.
But Menw caught it and flung it back, piercing Yspathaden's breast with it,
so that it came out at the small of his back.
"A cursed ungentle son-in-law, truly," says he, "the hard iron
pains me like the bite of a horse-leech. Cursed be the hearth whereon it was
heated! Henceforth whenever I go up a hill, I
shall have a scant in my breath and a pain in my chest."
On the third day the knights returned once more to the palace, and Yspathaden
took the third dart and cast it at them.
But Kilbuch caught it and threw it vigorously, and wounded him through the
eyeball, so that the dart came out at the back of his head.
"A cursed ungentle son-in-law, truly. As long as I remain alive my
eyesight will be the worse. Whenever I go against the wind my eyes will water,
and peradventure my head will burn, and I shall have a giddiness every new moon.
Cursed be the fire in which it was forged. Like the bite of a mad dog is the
stroke of this poisoned iron."
And they went to meat.
Said Yspathaden Penkawr, "Is it thou that seekest my daughter?"
"It is I," answered Kilhuch.
"I must have thy pledge that thou wilt not do towards me otherwise than
is just, and when I have gotten that which I shall name, my daughter thou shalt
"I promise thee that willingly," said Kilhuch, "name what thou
"I will do so," said he.
"Throughout the world there is not a comb or scissors with which I can
arrange my hair, on account of its rankness, except the comb and scissors that
are between the two ears of Turch Truith, the son of Prince Tared. He will not
give them of his own free will, and thou wilt not be able to compel him."
"It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that
it will not be easy."
"Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. It
will not be possible to hunt Turch Truith without Drudwyn the whelp of Greid,
the son of Eri, and know that throughout the world there is not a huntsman who
can hunt with this dog, except Mabon the son of Modron. He was taken from his
mother when three nights old, and it is not known where he now is, nor whether
he is living or dead."
"It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that
it will not be easy."
"Though thou get this, there is yet that which thou wilt not get. Thou
wilt not get Mabon, for it is not known where he is, unless thou find Eidoel,
his kinsman in blood, the son of Aer. For it would be useless to seek for him.
He is his cousin."
"It will be easy for me to compass this, although thou mayest think that
it will not be easy. Horses shall I have, and chivalry; and my lord and kinsman
Arthur will obtain for me all these things. And I shall gain thy daughter, and
thou shalt lose thy life."
"Go forward. And thou shalt not be chargeable for food or raiment for my
daughter while thou art seeking these things; and when thou hast compassed all
these marvels, thou shalt have my daughter for wife."
Now, when they told Arthur how they had sped, Arthur said, " Which of
these marvels will it be best for us to seek first?"
"It will be best," said they, "to seek Mabon the son of Modron;
and he will not be found unless we first find Eidoel, the son of Aer, his
Then Arthur rose up, and the warriors of the Islands of Britain with him, to
seek for Eidoel; and they proceeded until they came before the castle of Glivi,
where Eldoel was imprisoned.
Glivi stood on the summit of his castle, and said, "Arthur, what
requirest thou of me, since nothing remains to me in this fortress, and I have
neither joy nor pleasure in it; neither wheat nor oats?"
Said Arthur, "Not to injure thee came I hither, but to seek for the
prisoner that is with thee."
"I will give thee my prisoner, though I had not thought to give him up
to any one; and therewith shalt thou have my suport and my aid."
His followers then said unto Arthur, "Lord, go thou home, thou canst not
proceed with thy host in quest of such small adventures as these."
Then said Arthur, " It were well for thee, Gwrhyr Gwalstawt Ieithoedd,
to go upon this quest, for thou knowest all languages, and art familiar with
those of the birds and the beasts. Go, Eidoel, likewise with my men in search of
thy cousin. And as for you, Kay and Bedwyr, I have hope of whatever adventure ye
are in quest of' that ye will achieve it. Achieve ye this adventure for
These went forward until they came to the Ousel of Cilgwri, and Gwrhyr
adjured her for the sake of Heaven, saying, "Tell me if thou knowest aught
of Mabon, the son of Modron, who was taken when three nights old from between
his mother and the wall.
And the Ousel answered, "When I first came here there was a
smith's anvil in this place, and I was then a young bird, and from that time no
work has been done upon it, save the pecking of my beak every evening, and now there is not so much as the
size of a nut remaining thereof; yet the vengeance of Heaven be upon me if
during all that time I have ever heard of the man for whom you inquire.
Nevertheless, there is a race of animals who were formed before me, and 1 will
be your guide to them."
So they proceeded to the place where was the Stag of Redynvre.
Stag of Redynvre, behold we are come to thee, an embassy from Arthur, for we
have not heard of any animal older than thou. Say, knowest thou aught of Mabon?"
The stag said, "When first I came hither, there was a plain all around
me, without any trees save one oak sapling, which grew up to be an oak with an
hundred branches. And that oak has since perished, so that now nothing remains
of it but the withered stump; and from that day to this I have been here, yet
have I never heard of the man for whom you inquire. Nevertheless, I will be your
guide to the place where there is an animal which was formed before I was."
So they proceeded to the place where was the Owl of Cwm Cawlwyd, to inquire
of him concerning Mabon.
And the owl said, "If I knew I would tell you. When first I came hither,
the wide valley you see was a wooded glen. And a race of men came and rooted it
up. And there grew there a second wood, and this wood is the third. My wings,
are they not withered stumps? Yet all this time, even until to-day, I have never
heard of the man for whom you inquire. Nevertheless, I will be the guide of
Arthur's embassy until you come to the place where is the oldest animal in
this world, and the one who has travelled most, the eagle of Gwern Abwy."
When they came to the eagle, Gwrhyr asked it the same question; but it
replied, "I have been here for a great space of time, and when I first came
hither there was a rock here, from the top of which I pecked at the stars every
evening, and now it is not so much as a span high. From that day to this I have
been here, and I have never heard of the man for whom you inquire, except once
when I went in search of food as far as Llyn Llyw. And when I came there, I
struck my talons into a salmon, thinking he would serve me as food for a long
time. But he drew me into the deep, and I was scarcely able to escape from him.
Mter that I went with my whole kindred to attack him and to try to destroy him,
but he sent messengers and made peace with me, and came and besought me to take
fifty fish-spears out of his back. Unless he know something of him whom you
seek, I cannot tell you who may. However, I will guide you to the place where he
So they went thither, and the eagle said, "Salmon of Uyn .Llyw, I have
come to thee with an embassy from Arthur to ask thee if thou knowest aught
concerning Mabon, the son of Modron, who was taken away at three nights old from
between his mother and the wall."
And the salmon answered, "As much as I know I will tell thee. With every
tide I go along the river upwards, until I come near to the walls of Gloucester,
and there have I found such wrong as I never found elsewhere; and to the end
that ye may give credence thereto, let one of you go thither upon each of my two
So Kay and Gwrhyr went upon his shoulders, and they
proceeded till they came to the wall of the prison, and they heard a great
wailing and lamenting from the dungeon.
Said Gwrhyr, "Who is it that laments in this house of stone?"
And the voice replied, "Alas, it is Mabon, the son of Modron, who is
Then they returned and told Arthur, who, summoning his warriors, attacked the
And whilst the fight was going on, Kay and Bedwyr, mounting on the shoulders
of the fish, broke into the dungeon, and brought away with them Mabon, the son
Then Arthur summoned unto him all the warriors that were in the three islands
of Britain and in the three islands adjacent; and he went as far as Esgeir
Oervel in Ireland where the Boar Truith was with his seven young pigs. And the
dogs were let loose upon him from all sides. But he wasted the fifth part of
Ireland, and then set forth through the sea to Wales. Arthur and his hosts, and
his horses, and his dogs followed hard after him. But ever and awhile the boar
made a stand, and many a champion of Arthur's did he slay. Throughout all Wales
did Arthur follow him, and one by one the young pigs were killed. At length,
when he would fain have crossed the Severn and escaped into Cornwall, Mabon the
son of Modron came up with him, and Arthur fell upon him together with the
champions of Britain. On the one side Mabon the son of Modron spurred his steed
and snatched his razor from him, whilst Kay came up with him on the other side
and took from him the scissors. But before they could obtain the comb he had
regained the ground with his feet, and from the moment that he reached
the shore, neither dog nor man nor horse could overtake him
until he came to Cornwall. There Arthur and his hosts followed in his track
until they over-took him in Cornwall. Hard had been their trouble before, but it
was child's play to what they met in seeking the comb. Win it they did, and the
Boar Truith they hunted into the deep sea, and it was never known whither he
Then Kilhuch set forward, and as many as wished ill to Yspathaden Penkawr.
And they took the marvels with them to his court. And Kaw of North Britain came
and shaved his beard, skin and flesh clean off to the very bone from ear to ear.
"Art thou shaved, man?" said Kilhuch.
"I am shaved," answered he.
"Is thy daughter mine now?"
"She is thine, but therefore needst thou not thank me, but Arthur who
hath accomplished this for thee. By my free will thou shouldst never have had
her, for with her I lose my life."
Then Goreu the son of Custennin seized him by the hair of his head and
dragged him after him to the keep, and cut off his head and placed it on a stake
on the citadel.
Thereafter the hosts of Arthur dispersed themselves each man to his own
Thus did Kilhuch son of Kelython win to wife Olwen, the daughter of