Brut Tysillo

The Tale of Lludd and Lleuelys
And Llefelys loved he most of his brothers, because he was wise and eloquent. And when Llefelys heard that the king of Ffraink was dead with no heir saving a daughter, and that the kingdom was in her hand, he counselled his brother to go to the princes of Ffraink and ask for the maiden. And then without delay the maid was given him, and the kingdom’s crown with her. And he ruled with all good will as long as he lived. And then some time after, three plagues came upon ynys Brydain, the like of which had never been seen. One of these was a tribe named the Koraniait, and such was their knowledge that there was not a word caught by the wind that they did not know, and because of this no harm could [be wrought] upon them. And the second was a shriek that on the eve of every may-day resounded at every hearth-stone throughout all ynys brydain, which went through the hearts of men and animals so powerfully that men paled and lost their strength, and the women their unborn children, Young men and maidens lost their senses, and animals it struck barren in the forests. The third was, that whatever store was brought together in any of the courts of Ynys Brydain, nothing came into use, saving what was consumed on the first night. And while the cause of the first of the calamities was plain, as to the two others, there was no one that knew their meaning. Then was llydd greatly worried and puzzled because such plagues vexed ynys Brydain. And so he fitted out ships to go to see Llyfelys, his brother. And when Llefelys knew this, he came to meet him, and put his arms about his neck. And when Llefelys learned his brother’s errand, he ordered a long horn to be made, such as could be talked through, so that the Koraniait should get no wind of their conversation lest they learn their secret plans. So they talked through the tube, but neither could hear from the other anything but bitter words arsey-versey whereby Llefelys knew that a devil had got into the tube, so he ordered it to be flushed with wine. By virtue of the wine the devil left the tube. And Llefelys then gave his brother a certain kind of insects, and told him, when he got home to crush them and put them in cold water, and then calling every one together, both the Bryttaniait and Koraniaid, from the entire kingdom, to sprinkle the whole assembly with that water, which would kill all the Koranjait, and do no injury at all to the Bryttaniait. “The second plague of your kingdom is the island dragon and another dragon of the alien nation seeking to conquer her; and your dragon from rage and anguish gives that shriek which you hear. And this is the way,” said he, “in which you may know this. When you go home, measure the island, its length and its breadth, and in the place where you find the centre of the island, there order a pit to be dug in the earth, and let a large cauldron of mead, the very best you can get, be set in the pit, and cover the cauldron with a satin cloth. And do you keep watch over these things yourself, and you will hear the dragons furiously fighting in the air. And when they are worn out with fighting, taking the form of two pigs, they will settle down on the cloth, drink the mead, and pull the cloth with them to the bottom of the cauldron, and there fall asleep. And then wrap the cloth about them, and bury them deep in the earth in the strongest place that can be found in your kingdom; and, whilst they are there, no plague will come to ynys Brydain from anywhere. The third plague is a strong man skilled in magic who carries off your food and drink, by sorcery and illusion making every one to sleep. Therefore, you must yourself watch your chance and defend your stores; and lest sleep overcome you, have a tub of cold water at hand, and when drowsiness comes on, plunge into the tub of water.” And then Llydd returned home. And he called before him all the men of the kingdom, and then he sprinkled the water on them all. And the Koraniait died at once, but the Bryttaniait suffered no injury. And forthwith after this Llydd ordered the island to be measured in length and breadth, and in Rydychen [Oxford] was the centre found. And there he caused a pit to be dug as Llefelys had said to him. And thereupon he found everything true as his brother had told it to him. And when the pigs fell asleep, Llydd wrapped the cloth about them, and at Dinas Emrys in a stone coffer he hid them deep in the earth; and from that time that stormy shriek ceased. And then the king ordered a great feast to be laid out, and when it was ready, a tub of cold water to be placed near by, and so he watched the feast. And as he was thus watching for the greater part of the night, he heard the loveliest song in the world lulling him to sleep, but into the water many times he went. And then he saw coming in a large man in armour, with a big basket, into which in his sight f he put all the provision of meat and drink, and started off with it. And then Llydd ordered him to halt, and said to him, “Though thou hast already caused me loss, no longer shalt thou do so, unless thou art stronger than I am.” Then the black man halted, and furiously they fought, so that fire was shining from their swords, but at last llydd overcame the plague. And then the black man asked mercy of the king, saying that he would make good all the loss he had caused him up to that time; and that from that day he would be a true man to the king. And the king took his oath from him. Thus Llydd made an end of all three plagues, and when he died his body was buried in kaer Lyndain near the gate called in kymraec porth llydd, and in Sssaessnec lwyd-gad.

The Reign of Kasswallawn
And he had two sons, Afarwy and Tenefan; but since they were not of age to rule the kingdom, Kasswallawn, the son of Beli the king’s Uncle was consecrated. And after Kasswallawn was ordained king, he gave himself to love truth and justice, and though he was king, no advantage did he wish to take of his nephews, but gave them large shares of the realm, giving to Afarwy, Llyndain and the Earldom of Kent: and to Tenefan, the Earldom of Kerniw; and be himself was king over the whole.

The Coming of Julius Caesar
At this time came Ilkassar, emperor of Ryfain, who was subduing the islands, and after he had conquered Ffraink, and from there caught sight of Ynys Brydain, he asked what land that was opposite to him. And some told him that it was Ynys Brydain. After Ilkassar knew the meaning of the island and the people that inhabited it, he said, “Here is our race, men of Ryfain; for both the men of Ryfain and the Bryttaniait come of the race of Troyaf; for Eneas, after the fall of Troyaf, was ancestor to us and to them. For Bryttys [was] the son of Ssylhys, the son of Yssgannys, the son of Eneas, and Bryttys was the first to subdue that island yonder, and I have the opinion that it will not be hard for me to subject the island yonder to the Senate of Ryfain. For sea-bound they are, and they are without knowledge of war, or bearing of arms, or of fighting. But right it is first to send Envoys, warning them not to withstand the men of Ryfain, but to pay them tribute, as do all the other nations about them, — and that without fighting, lest they should force us to shed their blood who are related to us, and trace their lineage to our forefather Priaf.” And then Ilkassar sent that message and command to Kasswallon to do according to it. But Kasswallawn held that course unworthy, and sent a letter to Ilkassar in these words:

“Kasswallawn, king of the Bryttaniait, sends greeting to Ilkassar, emperor of Ryfain, to say to him, — I wonder much at the greed of the men of Ryfain and how greatly they thirst for gold and silver, so that they are unwilling for us who endure hardship in the ocean, to live in a sea-girt isle beyond the limits of the world, without seeking to impose tribute on us f for the land which until now we have had freely. A great shame to thee, O Ilkassar, is that which thou hast commanded, because we and you are alike descended from the stock of Eneas Yssgwyddwyn. Therefore thou shouldest not seek to bring us into perpetual captivity. Wherefore know thou, O Ilkassar, we will fight for our land and liberty shouldest thou cross the sea, as thou promisest, rather than let thy foot touch Ynys Brydain.”

And so after Ilkassar had seen Kasswallawn’s letter and his answers, he fitted out a fleet, and came to the mouth of the Temys. And against him came Nynniaw, his [Kaswallon’s] brother; and Afarwy, his nephew, prince of Llyndain; and Trahayant, Earl of Kerniw; and Kradawc, king of Alban; and Gwerthaet, king of Gwent; and Brithael, king of Dyfed. They came without delay to the castle of Doral, at once they came down to the beach, and manfully they fought on all sides. And then Nyniaw and Ilcassar met, and Ilkassar raised his sword aiming at Nynnyaw’s head; but he caught it on his shield, until the sword stuck in it, but he could not pull it out on account of the thickness of the armies pressing upon them. And when Nynyaw had got his sword, no one stood up under his blows. And then the Earl Alibiens met nyniaw and quickly he was slain. Thus the greater part of Ilkassar's army were killed, and he himself was driven in disgraceful flight to Ffraink. The men of ifraink rose against him, and fought against him seeking to throw down his Lordship over them; for they thought his attack on the Bryttaniait had failed, since he had fled away from there, and they heard that Kasswallawn’s ships were on the sea in pursuit of him. But he [Caesar] gave an enormous sum of money to the princes of ifraink and freedom to all prisoners held by him, and thus he pacified the people. And after this victory, Kasswallawn and his nobles with him came to llvndain to pay honour to the gods. On the fifteenth day thereafter, Nynnyaw died of that head-blow, and was buried near the north gate, and the sword with him; and the sword was called the red death, because any one wounded by it died at once. At this time Ilkassar built the castle of [G]odinae, lest it should happen that the men of ffraink should withstand him the second time. And so, two years later, Ilkassar came a second time to take Revenge upon the Bryttaniait for his disgrace. And when Kasswallawn heard this, he ordered iron stakes of the thickness of a man’s thigh to be planted along the middle of the Temys in the course of Ilkassar’s ships, and without warning, they ran upon the stakes, and the ships were pierced, and thousands of his men were drowned. And those who did gain the land were met by Casswallawn and all the might of Lloegr, and thus he got the victory.

And Ilkassar fled to the strand of Moran, and from there he went to the fortress of [G]odinae. And then Kasswallawfl went to ilyndain, and there made a great feast for his princes and servants. And there he Sacrificed thirty-two thousand animals of many different kinds; and they passed the nights in all sorts of games. And then a quarrel sprang up between two Young nobles, while they were tilting. One was named Hirlas, the king’s nephew, the other was Kyhylyn, nephew to Afarwy. And in the end, Kyhylyn killed Hirlas, the king’s nephew. And this caused great excitement in the court; and the king was greatly enraged, and wished to have Afarwy’s nephew before the judgment of his court. But Afarwy doubted about that, and said it was in llyndain that satisfaction should be given for every wrong committed within his kingdom and for that he was ready. The king, however, would have nothing but to have Kyhylyn at his will. But Afarwy would not have this, knowing what the king’s will was; and therefore Afarwy left the court, and went to his own territory. When the king saw this, he followed him with a large force, and wholly devastated the country with fire and sword. Then Afarwy sent to the king asking reconciliation, but without getting it. And then Afarwy pondered by what means he could withstand the king, and in council he was advised to send to Ilkassar, to ask him to come to ynys Brydain and he would be a help to him, to strengthen him in his coming, and they would subdue ynys Brydain to Ilkassar. And in confirmation of this, Afarwy sent Kynan, his son, and thirty-two hostages of the nobles of ynys Brydain as pledges therefor. And then Ilkassar prepared a fleet and landed at the port of Rwydon, where Afarwy received him respectfully. And the king was then besieging Kaer Lvndain; but when Kasswallawn heard of the coming of Ilkassar to ynys Brydain, he prepared to come against him. When he had reached the woody glen near kaer gaint [Canterbury], he saw the tents of the men of Ryfain, and there they fought, and there was great slaughter on both sides; and in the end the Bryttaniaid were driven to a high mountain, which manfully they held, and killed many of the men of Ryfain. And when the men of Ryfain saw this, they surrounded the mountain seeking to starve out the Bryttaniait. And then Kasswallawn sent to Afarwy to ask him to make peace between himself and Ilkassar. And Afarwy was amazed, and said, “It is not strange that he who is in war a lamb, and a lion in peace, should seek reconciliation.” And then came Afarwy to Ilkassar and said thus to him: “My Lord,” said he,” I promised thee the subjection of ynys Brydain, and here it is for thee by letting Kasswallawn be king under thee, paying tribute to the Senate of Ryfain.” And Ilcassar refused that proposal. And when Afarwy saw this, he said, “My Lord, though I did promise thee the subjection of ynys Brydain, I did not promise the destruction of my own race. For they have not done me wrong so far that they cannot make it right,and I will not consent to have my race destroyed.” And so Ilkassar granted peace to Kasswallawn, upon his giving three thousand pounds every year to the senate of Ryfain from ynys Brydain. And when this was confirmed, together they came to llvndain. And there they dwelt that winter. And the following summer ikassar went toward Ryfain. And Afarwy went with him to oppose Pontenis, who at this time was ruling the empire there. And Kasswallawn remained in ynys Brydain, reigning Seven years, and after his death he was buried at kaer Efroc. And after Kasswallawn, Tenefan, son of llydd, Earl of Kerniw, became king.

The Reigns of Cynfelyn/Cunobelinus and Gloyw Kassar
And after him Kynvelyn, his son, who had been brought up by Ilkassar, became king. And beyond measure did Kynvelyn love the men of Ryfain so that he did not dislike to pay the tribute to them. And in his time was born Iessu Krist. And after Kynvelyn had reigned twelve years, there were born to him two sons, Gwydr and Gwairydd. And when kynvelyn was dead, Gwydr was made king, and when he was settled in his realm, he withheld the tribute to the men of Ryfain, and when the men of Ryfain knew this, they sent Gloywkassar and a great army with him to ynys Brydain; and when the Emperor had landed, he attacked Kaerberis and fought against the fort, but when he did not succeed he closed up the gates of the town with a stone wall, to shut up the multitude within until they died of famine, and when Gwydr heard it, he prepared a great host, went to Kaerberis, and promptly fell upon the men of Ryfain and more of them were killed by Gwydr himself than by the greater part of his host together. And then came Hamon, the deceiver, who from the hostages of the Bryttaniait at Ryfain had learned the language. He threw aside his own arms and took the arms of one of the Bryttaniait who had been killed, and came among the armies, and when he got the chance, killed the king, and from there slunk in and out until he reached his own army, and he threw away that armour and put on his own arms. And when Gwairydd learned of his brother’s death, he took off his own harness and put on his brother’s royal armour, and incited his men to fight manfully, and to put the men of Ryfain to flight. And then Hamon and the larger part of the army with him fled to the place called porth Hamon, or bporth Hamwnt it is called to this hour; and there Hamon was killed. And then Gwairydd went onto the place, where Glywkasser was fighting against kaer beris. And when the cpmpany within the fortress perceived the Bryttaniait coming to help them, they came out trom the fortress to fight the men of Ryfain. And on both sides many were killed, but yet because of the number of the men of Ryfain, they won the fort, and drove Gwairydd in flight to kaer wynt, and hither came Gloywkassar and his army, and wished to shut up the Bryttaniait until they should die of famine; and when Gwairydd learned this, be arrayed his host and came out. When Gloywkassar saw this, he sent to the Bryttaniait to ask for peace, and forthwith peace was made between them; and to confirm the peace, Gloywkassar gave his daughter to Gwairydd to wife. And after this, with the power of the Bryttaniaid, the men of Ryfain subdued the Ork islands, and the other islands about them. And when winter slipped away, the maid, matchless in her form and fairness, came from Ryfain, and Gwairydd married her. And then Gloyw kassar built a city which he called kaer-loyw [Gloucester] on the bank of Hafren, on the boundary between kymrv and lloegr.

And at this time Krist suffered at Karissalem; and pedr the Apostle set up his chair at Anossia; and from there he came to Ryfain, to live and exercise Bishop right; and he sent Mark, Teacher and Evangelist, to Eifft [Egypt] to preach the Evangel which he himself had written. And when Gloyw-karsar had opportunity, he went to Ryfain, and left the governance of ynys Bryaain to Gwairydd. And after he left the island Gwairydd took upon himself rashness, and pride, and withheld the tribute to the men of Ryfain. And when gloywkassar heard this, he sent Vassbassian with a great army to take tribute from ynys Brydain. And when his fleet was fully ready, they made landfall at the port of rydipi. And Gwairydd and his army came against them and forbade him the land. They therefore trimmed their sails and landed at the port of Totnais, and after landing they invested kaer benhwylgoed and fought against it. And when the king learned this, he prepared his army and reached there at the end of the seventh day, and attacked the men of Ryfain, and fought with them, and that day many on both sides were killed. And on the next day so great was the number of the men of Ryfain that it was hard to overcome them. And then came the Queen to make peace between them. And together they came to llyndain. And from there they sent combined forces to Iwerddon to subdue it. And when the winter was over, Vassbassian came to Ryfain, and by oaths he pledged Gwairydd in ynys Brydain to the end of his life. And at his death, he was buried in the monastery of kaer-loyw which was built by Gloyw-kassar.

Mayric, Koel and Lles
And after Gwairydd, Mayric, his son, became king; and in his time came Rodric, the king of the ffichdiait from sseithia with great army to Alban, and subdued it. And when the king knew this, he came against him, and fought him and put him to flight, and in that flight Rodric was slain. And then Meyric gave part of Alban to those people to dwell in. And when they had settled that place, the ffichdiaid found no mates. And so they came to the Bryttanlaid and asked their daughters as their wives, but it seemed Unworthy to the Bryttaniait to give them to them. And so the ffichdiait went as far as iwerddon and took Gwyddylessav [Goidelic women] as wives, and from them have the Yssgottiait descended. And when Mayric had quieted this island, of his free accord and friendship he granted peace to the men of Ryfain. And he put new laws in all parts of his dominions, and ruled in a quiet peace as long as he lived. And after Mayric died, Koel, his son, became king. He had been reared at Ryfain. And so greatly did he love the men of Ryfain that though he could have withheld the tribute, he did not withhold it while he lived. And after Koel, lles, his son, became king. And he was of like disposition with his father; and when he was well established in his kingdom, he sent to Elenteriws, the bishop of Ryfain, to beg him that he would send to ynys Brydain teachers of the christian faith, so that by their instruction and preaching he might believe in Krist And he sent him two teachers, Dyfan and ffagan; and they preached to him of Krist’s coming in the flesh. And they washed him in holy and faithful baptism, and all the people of his kingdom after him. And then lles gave over the temples, which had been built for the false Gods, and ordered that they should be Consecrated in the name of almighty god and the saints, and set in them Various grades of ordained men to live there and to render divine worship to god. At that time there were eight and sixty Bishop-houses in Ynys Brydain, and three archbishop-houses bearing rule over the others and those three were in the three chief cities of the island, namely llyndain, and kaerefroc, and kaerllion oh wysc. And when partition was made between the arch bishop-houses, to the Bishop-house of Kaer Efrawc belonged deifyr and brynaich, and all the gogledd, defined by the hymyr. And to the Arch Bishop-house of ilyndain, lloegr and Kerniw, as defined by the hafren. And to the Arch Bishop-house of Caer llion, Kymry, from the hafren upwards; for Caer llion was primate over the other two. And afterwards the king gave them great gifts of land and soil. And at kaer loyw he ended his life, and was buried in the monastery there, one hundred and thirty-six years after Krist came in the flesh. And there were at that time in ynys Brydain twenty-eight temples. And also three above these. And those twenty-eight temples were under the ownership of the three others, and their domains were at the command of the others. In each one of those temples was placed a consecrated Bishop; and in each of the three principal ones an Arch Bishop, in the principal cities already named. Then since lles had no heir, there sprang up discord between the Bryttaniait and the men of Ryfain. And from that time on the men of ryfain weakened. And when this was told to the Senate of Ryfain, they sent sseferys, a senator of Ryfain, with a legion of fighting men, that is, twenty thousand. And for the most part he prevailed against the Bryttaniait. Some of them, with ssiien as prince over them, fled through daif yr and brynaich, and many fights were there between them, to that emperor’s great concern. And so he ordered a dike to be made between daifr and Alban by a common tax, from sea to sea, by which it would be easy to resist the Bryttafliait. And when Siien saw that it profited neither himself nor the Bryttaniaid to fight the men of Ryfain, he went as far as sseithia to seek support. And when he had secured all the Youth of that country, he came back to ynys Brydain and invested Kaer Efrawc, and fought against it. And when the rumour had run through the realm, the greater part of the Bryttaniait forsook the emperor and came over to ssiien. And then without delay sseferys went with his army to fight with silien. And Silien smote him with a deadly wound, and of that sseferys died, and was buried at kaer Efrawc.


And two Sons had Sseferys, Bassian and Getta. And Getta’s mother descended from Ryfain, but the mother of Bassian from ynys Brydain. And after his father’s death, the men of Ryfain made Getta their prince, because his mother’s descent was from Ryfain. And then the Bryttaniait took Bassian as their king because of his mother’s descent from ynys Brydam; and hence strife arose between the brothers. And upon a day they met, and at that meeting Getta was killed, and Bassian got the kingship for his own. And at this time there was a Young man in ynys Brydaifl, Karan was his name. He came of humble lineage, but was renowned for bravery, proved in many battles. And he went to Ryfain and asked the senators of Ryfain for a commission to protect ynys Brydain with his ships against the alien people, and from that he promised much benefit. And then he went back again to ynys Brydain; and built up the island’s power, and went to sea, frequenting many different ports, and he made great disturbance in the islands round about, laying them waste, killing and burning. And all those who loved violence and plunder came to him until he had such great multitudes that he had fear of no man. And then, seeing all things prospering for him, he sent to the Bryttaniad asking them that he might become their king, and [if he did] he would destroy the men of Ryfain, and chase them out of this island, and deliver them from the alien nation. And when he got the victory, he went with a great host against Bassian and the men of Ryfain and the ffichdiait. And in the first battle the ffichdiait turned against the men of Ryfain; in that battle Bassian was killed, and the men of Ryfain were put to flight, for they could not tell who were against them and who were not. And after Karan got the victory through the treachery of the ffichdiait, he gave Essgottlond to them, and there they still are in the place called Prydyn.

Allectus and Asclepiodotus
And when the Senators of Ryfain knew this, they sent Alectys, a Senator of Ryfain, with three legions of fighting men to ynys Brydain. Against them set out Karan and his host, and fought with them, and in that battle was Karan slain. And Electys raised a great storm among the Bryttaniait; and they held it dire misfortune, and chose Alyssglapitwlws as their prince, — for he was Earl of Kerniw, — and went against Alectys unto llyndain, where he was keeping a feast ot his ancestral gods. And when Alectys grasped the purpose of the business, he marshalled his host and attacked the Bryttaniait. And then there was great slaughter, but in the end the men of Ryfain fled, and the Bryttaniait chased them, and killed thousands of them; and there was killed Alectys. And the men of Ryfain shut the gates of llyndain against them. Boiysgalys, Alectys’s comrade was he, took upon himself to command the men of Ryfain. But Alyssglapitwlws surrounded the city, and sent to all the princeS of ynys Brydain, saying that he was sitting down before kaer Lvndain, and ordering all to come without delay to aid him. Upon the summons hastily came the men of South Wales and men of North Wales, and the men of daifr and brynnaich, and the men of Allan. And when all were before the city, they battered down the walls, through them and over them they went in, and began to kill the men of Ryfain. And when they saw this, they went to the king, and begged him for protection and to be let go alive to their country. But whilst the king was taking counsel as to them, the men of Gwynedd waylaid the men of Ryfain and killed them all. And then Alyssglapytwlws took the crown of the kingdom and ruled it twenty years. And in his time began the tempest which Diakiessiawn, the emperor of Ryfain, raised against the christians, until he almost wiped out all Christianity.

Coel, Elen, and Constantine
And then came Maxen and Erkwlff, two princes, by order of that brutal one, and destroyed the Churches, burned the books of holy scripture, and killed the [lay] christians and clergy. And then were killed Saint Alban of Virolan, and Aron of kaer llion, his companion. And then rose up Koel Earl of Kaer loyw, and warred against Alyssglapitwlws, and quickly Koel slew him. And then Konstans, a senator of Ryfain, who had been subduing Yssbaen, came to ynys Brydain, and warred against Koel, and he fixed a day intending to attack; but suddenly they made peace. And at the end of a week and a month after this, Koel died, and ten years had he reigned. And then Konstans took as his wedded wife, Elen, Koel’s only daughter, who was called Elen lyddawc, whose like for lovely form and face was never seen before; and to them was born a son called Kystennin, son of Konstant. This one conquered Ryfain from Maxen the cruel, he and his three Uncles, his mother’s brothers, namely Llywelyn and Trahaern and Mayric. And this Trahaern came with three legions of armed men to wrest ynys Brydain from Eydaf, the Earl of Erging and Eyas, and took kaer-beris. And toward the close of the second day Eydaf drew near Kaer wynt to Maes Vrien, and there he gained his first victory. And Tryhaern was driven in flight to his ships and made land-fall in Alban to renew war. And then Trahayarn defeated and pursued Eydaf from place to place until he fled to Llychlynn, to seek support from Gyttbert, king of Prydyn, and asked him to cause Trahayarn's death. So the Earl of the strong castle lay in wait for Trahayarn with a hundred horse in a glen, along which he must pass, and when Trahayarn came, he quickly killed him.

Eudaf and Conan Meriadoc
And then Eydaf gained the mastery of ynys Brydain, and took the kingdom’s crown, and straightway was greatly enriched, and gathered men and steeds and arms and goods, so that it was not easy for any king to Contend with him. And so Eydaf held this kingdom until there came two Emperors from Ryfain, Grassiant and Afalawnt. And be ruled ynys Brydain almost to the end of his life, wanting a true heir and having no other except one only daughter. And then he caused all the nobles of ynys Brydain to be summoned to take counsel with them as to the governance of the island, and also as how best to bestow Elen his daughter. And some advised him to give his kingdom to his nephew, Kynan Mairiadawc, his brother’s son, and to give Elen his daughter to a Prince of some other country, with plenty of treasure from this island with her. Others advised that she should be given to a prince of this island and the realm with her. And then said Kradawc, the Earl of Kerniw, “We are under subjection to the Senate of Ryfain. My advice is that you send to Ryfain, and choose Maxen Wledic, for he is son to Llywelyn, the uncle of Elen Lyddawc, and his mother was the daughter of a prince of the Senate of Ryfain, — and give thy daughter to him and the kingdom with her. And from this we shall get the support of the senate of Ryfain to defend our country against the alien nation.” And on this they stayed. And thereupon Kradawc, the Earl, sent his son, Mayryc, to Ryfain. And it was but seldom that there was agreement between the men of Ryfain and all the countries. When Mayric saw their discord, he said to Maxen, “I wonder that you put up with those men yonder.” “What shall I do?” said Maxen. “Come,” said he, “with me to Ynys Brydain, and marry Elen, the daughter of Eydaf, the king of. the Bryttaniaid, and with her take the realm; thus by the strength of the Bryttaniait you may conquer any island that resists you.” And on this Maxen settled. And then he collected a fleet, and went to Ffraink, and forced them to do his will and to give him gold and silver. And then warning was brought to the king of the Bryttaniaid that a fleet was at sea, and that it was not known where it would land. And then Eydaf ordered Kynan Mairiadoc to marshal all the Youth of ynys Brydain to defend the land against the alien nation. And then Kanan with a mighty host reached the hill of Kent. And when Maxen saw the size of the army, he rushed to Mayryc and said to him, “There is need of good counsel and strength to face an army as large as this with all signs of fighting on it.” And then were chosen twelve of the oldest and most prudent men, and they were sent ashore in a boat, and each of them bore in his hand a green olive branch as token of peace. And they came to Kynan Mairiadawc, and greeted him Courteously, and said that they were envoys from Maxen Wiedic to the king of the Bryttaniaid. Then Kynan asked, “Why then came he with so great a force as that, if he comes in peace?” They said, “Lest he should suffer violence upon his voyage.” And when Kynan knew their errand, he desired to fight them, lest he should lose his kingship. Then said Kradawc, the Earl of Kerniw, “Let these men go on to the king and let what be wishes be done to them.” Then went they to the fort in arvon [Caernarvon] where Eydaf, with his daughter Elen, held his court. And without delay Maxen took Elen as his wedded wife, and the government of the kingdom With her And when Kynan learned it, he went to Alban, raised a large army there, and came through hymyr, and began to ravage that district, until Maxen came and put them to flight. Then the second time Kynan and his army came back; and peace was made between them, to win together and lose together. And at the end of the fifth year after this, Maxen and Kynan went to Ffraink to the place where Hymblat was prince, and killed him. And then Maxen said to Kynan Mairiadawc, “Since I have taken from thee ynys Brydain, I will give thee Llydaw.” And this was the first time that the Bryttaniait came to llydaw, and from this time on it is called little Bryttaen And from there Maxen marched to the city of Roam, to Normandi, and for fear of him the Ffraink fled, leaving the castles and the cities empty. And from there Maxen went to Ryfain and fought against Grassian and Nafalawnt, the emperors of Ryfain; and quickly he killed the one and banished the other from Ryfain. At this time there were many conflicts between the Bryttaniaid of Llydaw and the Ffraink. And when this had been so for a long time, the men of llydaw, desirous of getting suitable wives, sent messengers to ynys Brydain, to the Earl of Kerniw, who had been left as guardian of the kingdom; and begged him to send to Kynan Mairiadoc eleven thousand daughters of noblemen of the island as Wives for them, and sixty maidens of servile descent, and attendants. And when that number of maidens had been collected, they started with their fleet, but at sea an adverse wind arose and scattered the ships to various shores, and sunk some of them. At that time Gwnwas and Meiwas were warring on the sea against the men of ssermania in interest of Grassian, the emperor of Ryfain. And those men met two ships of these maidens, which had been scattered in the sea of ffraink. And when the above mentioned men were told by the maidens that ynys Brydain was left empty, they reversed their sails, and made for ynys Brydain. For this Gwnwas was king of hynawd, and Melwas was king of Paittio. And when they landed in the gogledd, they killed the people wherever they marched. And when Maxen heard this in Ryfain, he sent two legions of soldiers, with Grassian as commander, to defend ynys Brydain. And so there was a battle between them and the warriors, and many on both sides were killed, and Gwnnwas and Meiwas were driven in flight to iwerddon. At this time Maxen was killed in Ryfain, and the whole multitude who came from ynys Brydain, except those who escaped to llydaw on foot. And when Grassian heard of the death of Maxen and his chief men, Grassian took the government of ynys Brydain into his own possession and wore the crown of the kingdom on his head, and reigned for a long time in cruelty towards the and at last his own men killed him. And when Gwnwas and Melwas heard of the killing of grassian by his own men, they collected the men of Llychlyn and of Dennmark and the yssgottiaid and ffichiait, and they came to ynys Brydain and ravaged it with fire and sword from one sea to the other, and killed multitudes. And then after the Bryttaniaid saw that they had no success in opposing them, they sent to Ryfain asking aid from them. And they obtained a legion of armed men with Sefervys as prince over them. And when they reached ynys Brydain they met the enemy and drove them out of its bounds. And then, by common agreement, they made a stone wall by united labours between Daifyr and the gogledd, so that it would be harder for the alien nation to oppress them in the future. And after going from that place to Ilyndain, the men of Ryfain ordered Kyhylyn to say that the Bryttaniait had been losing their men and their property, and that they themselves had been laying out more gold and silver than they ever got from ynys Brydain while seeking to defend the Bryttaniat, that in future they would not labour to defend it. And the afflicted :people gave a dolorus cry because they saw all their supports failing them. And then the men of Ryfain took ship and went to their country. And when Gwynwas and Melwas knew this, they gathered the largest force they could, landed in Alban, made war on the Bryttaniait, and killed them, subdued Alban as far as the hymyr, and made many raids on them. And when the Bryttaniait saw that they could not withstand their enemies, they sent a piteous appeal to Gittiws, the emperor of Ryfain, begging his aid to withstand their enemies. But when the Senate of Ryfain heard their prayer, they denied it wholly, and from that time out renounced ynys Brydain and its tribute. And when the Bryttaniait learned of the refusal of the men of Ryfain, they sent Kyhylyn, the Archbishop of Llyndain, to Llydaw to ask help from Aldwr, king of llydaw, for he was the fourth king after Kynan Mairiadawc. And when Kyhylyn had told the king the distress of the Bryttaniait caused by the alien nation, the king was grieved, and gave them two thousand armed horsemen with his brother Kystennin as leader over them And when the ships were made ready they set sail toward ynys Brydain, and at the port of Totnais they came to the land of Lloegr And when Gwnnwas and Meiwas heard this, they made ready, joined battle, and fiercely fought, and on both sides multitudes were killed. But in the end Kystennin and the Bryttanlait got the victory by the slaughter of their enemies. And after this they came to kaer vyddav, where Kystennin put on the kingdom’s crown. And there was given him to wife the daughter of one of the princes of Ryfain, who had been fostered by Kyhylyn the Archbishop. And by her he had three Sons, namely, Konstant, and Emrys, and Ythyr ben dragwn. And this Konstant was reared in the monastery of Amffibalys at kaer Wynt, and the other Sons were given in fosterage to Kyhylyn. And when Kystennin had ruled in Messed peacefulness for twelve years, there came one of the Ffichtiaid, and under the pretence of talk with him apart from others, with a knife wounded him in the top of his breast, — and of that wound he died.