The Reign of Blaiddyd
The Reign of llvr
And after Rriallon, Gorwst his son became king. After him Saissyll became king. After him Iago, gorwst’s nephew, became king. After Iago, Kynvarch, son of Ssayssyllt, became king. After Yssyllt, Gwrvyw became king; and he had two sons named Ffervex and Porex. And when their father was enfeebled by years and disease, dispute broke out between the two brothers about the kingship and to know which should get it. Porex, inflamed with rage and hatred against his brother, planned to kill him. And when Ffervex heard this, he went to Ffraink to seek support and strength from Siwart, king of Ffraink; and came back again to fight his brother. And then Fforex killed him with the greater part of his host. But the mother of the two youths became angry at Fforex, her still living son, and came with her maids and found him sleeping, and she killed him in his sleep, then tore him into little pieces. And after this for a long time there was strife among the peoples and civil war about the kingdom, until they divided it into five parts, under five of these kings, who alternately fought each other. And then a long time after that, there arose the fame of the Youth who was called Dyfnwal Moel Myd, for he was a son of Klydno, Earl of Kerniw, and he was of more beauty and bravery than any of the kings of ynys brydain. And that young man, after his father’s death, took the kingdom into his own hands, and at once fought with Pymed, king of lloegr, and slew him. And then when this was heard by Nydawc, king of Kymbry, and Tewdwr, king of Yssgottlont, they and their forces came into Dyfnwal’s territory and began to ravage and to burn. And when Dyfnwal heard this he came with thirty thousand armed men and fought them. Much of the day was spent without advantage to one over the other. And then when Dyfnwal saw he was not getting the victory, he called to him one hundred and twenty of his bravest men, and gave them the armour of the slain [men] about them, and putting off his own armour, he put on the armour of a dead man, and he quickly went to the place where nydawc the king was, and slew him; then with his hundred and twenty men he went to the place where dtewdwr was and ordered them to rush upon him, and they killed him suddenly. All this he did with but a hundred and twenty men. And then he quickly put on his own armour, for fear his own soldiers should kill him, then exhorted them anew to kill their enemies, and it was not long before he got complete victory. And then he traversed the country far and wide, capturing and destroying camps and castles. And when he had subdued to himself all ynys brydain from one sea to the other, he caused a Crown of gold to be made for him, and wore it on his head. And he brought f the island back to its ancient dignity, and established laws, which are still called the laws of Dyfnwal-Moel Myd. And the Ssaesson still observe them; and he granted right [of refuge] to temples and cities, and to roads named by law, so that every one who fled to them, whatever he bad done amiss, should find protection, and go whither he would without permission of his adversaries. He also did many other things, too tiresome to treat of, concerning which Gildas wrote; for be gave privilege of refuge to the roads leading to the chief cities, and he granted the principal roads to the common people to go to the cities and temples, and in his time there was neither thief nor criminal; and so after governing the land in this fashion for forty years from the time when he made and put on the Crown, he died, and was buried in llyndain in a temple which he himself had built.
of Beli and Bran
And Beli gathered a great host and marched through Hymyr, seized the fortresses and cities, and put his own men into them. And when Bran heard this, he gathered a great army from Llychlynn. And as he joyfully went with this fleet, the wind with him, towards his country, behold Gwychlan, king of Dassia, who was pursuing him for love of the maiden he had carried away from Llychlyn, met them. And when that one knew that bran was there, he prepared his fleet and fought him hard, until he managed to throw hooks upon the ship in which was Bran’s wife, and dragged it with him until he and she came into the midst of his own fleet. And then, behold! a storm of wind came and scattered the ships to every strand disastrously, and thus for five days they sailed. And in the Gogledd it was that the king of Dassia was forced ashore.
And when the men of that country heard that, they seized them and brought them to Beli, who was there waiting for his brother from Llychlyn. And along with the king of Dassia’s ships, there were three other ships, and one of them belonged to the ships of Bran, his brother. Well pleased was Beli to capture it to begin to take revenge upon his brother. And a few days later, behold, Bran came, having gathered his ships along the coast of the Gogledd. And when it was told him that Beli had conquered his following and captured his wife, he sent a message to Beli demanding that his wife and his kingdom be delivered to him again, saying that unless he got them, he would ravage the whole island from one sea to the other; and would also kill him should he meet him. And when Beli heard this, he refused those two demands, both as to his wife and his kingdom.
And then Beli gathered a host of all the horsemen of Ynys Brydain, and set forth against Bran and prepared to fight with him. And forthwith when Bran learned this, he came up with Beli in a place called the grove of Kaladyr, and there they engaged fiercely, for both of them were men famed in battle; and on both sides men fell as fall the oats of harvest before the reapers. And at last, the bryttaniaid were victorious, and the men of Llychlyn fled broken to their ships; for in that battle fifteen thousand of the men of Llychlyn were killed, and none escaped unwounded. And then scarcely did bran reach one of his ships and go to Ffraink. And the other multitudes who had come with him fled to the first place where they could find safety. And then after getting this victory, Beli called the nobles of the kingdom to Kaer Efroc, to take counsel as to the king of Dassia, for that man had sent messengers to him offering homage and submission, and also tribute every year, that he might be released, and his beloved. And this Beli did, upon the advice of the nobles; and took oaths and hostages from the king of Dassia. Then he with his beloved were set at liberty.
And after Beli had subdued the island from one sea to the other, and there was no one to oppose him, he confirmed the laws he made and had peace cried through the whole island, and more especially in the temples and cities. And to these he gave the most ample privileges they ever had. And at this time there was contention as to the high ways, whose boundaries were not clearly known. Therefore, he called to him all the stone masons of Ynys Brydain, and ordered them to make roads of stone and mortar, according to rule. One of them was built from the Cape of Kerniw on the sea unto Cape Bladdon in the Gogledd, and that is the length of Ynys Brydain, through such chief cities as were directly in its course. And another he ordered to be made across the island, that is from Kaer Vyniw [St. David’s] on the coast, to Port Hamon, that is Norddamtwn. And he also ordered to be made two other roads, slantwise to these, reaching the corners of the island, passing as the others did through cities. And when they were finished, he ordered them to be held sacred, and gave them right of sanctuary, so that whoever reached one of those roads, however great crimes he had committed, no one dared molest him. And then Beli reigned in peace.
And Bran, his brother, who had fled to Ffraink in distress, was sad because of his banishment from his country and kingdom. And there was no way for him to get it back, and he knew not what to do. And then, with eleven horsemen, he went to the prince of Ffraink and showed him his evil case. And when this one refused to help him, straightly he went on to the prince of Byrgwin [Burgundy], and he was cordial to him and gave him his company and his love, so that there was not in the court any one of so much honour as he. This was because in everything that he did, whether in war or in peace, he showed praise and honour, so that the prince loved him as much as if he were his son. For Bran was a man fair to look upon, with long and slender limbs, courteous, wise and capable, as it befitted him to be. And when the prince had thus set his love upon him, having as his heir an only daughter, he gave her to Bran as his wedded wife, and promised Byrgwin to him in succession to himself, provided that he should have no other heir; and if he should have a son he promised him support and means to conquer his own realm; and another one of the princes of Ffraink also promised him support. And then Bran married the maiden. And thus the nobles of the country became subject to him, and he ruled with his own hand the territory which had been given him. And not a year later, the prince died. And then Bran restored to such princes as loved him, the estates which the prince had taken away from their forbears; and thus he bound their love to himself because of his generosity. And with that he did what the men of Byrgwin held best, giving of food and drink to everyone who came, and no door was shut against them.
And then when the multitude was in accord with him, he pondered in what way he could get revenge upon Beli his brother for what he had done to him. And so all promised him support and forces to go to conquer whatever place in the world he wished. And then without delay he gathered a vast host, and coming to Ffraink, made a compact with those men permitting that he, with his army, should pass through that country towards Ynys Brydain. And when the ships were ready on the coast of Fflawndrys, they went to sea with the wind behind them, until they came to Ynys Brydain. And when Beli heard that his brother was coming with a great fleet, he gathered a mighty host and set out against him to fight him. And then as they were about to grapple, Tonwen, their mother, came to them, and hastened through the armies, seeking to see Bran, her son, for she had not seen him for a long time. And so, trembling with fear, she walked to the place where Bran was standing, and put her arms about his neck, and gave him many kisses, and then bared her breast and through sobbing and weeping, said thus to him: “My dearest son, remember these breasts which thou hast sucked, and remember thy mother’s heart who bore thee nine months beneath her girdle, remember all the pains I took to rear thee. Think of these things today; for the sake of the creator from heaven who made thee, grant forgiveness to thy brother. Let thy anger, which thou hast conceived against him, cease, for he gave thee no occasion for anger, and it was not he who banished thee from thy country and kingdom. And he did thee no wrong. And he did not banish thee to humble thee, but rather for thy elevation, for thou wast in subjection to him for a small part of the kingdom. And although thou didst lose that part, thou art now his equal, and thus he caused thy elevation to great dignity. For it is greater honour to be duke of Byrgwin than of a share of Ynys Brydain. Consider, not by him first grew this quarrel between you, but thou thyself began it, when thou wentest to seek the daughter of the king of Llychlyn as thy wife, and by that strength sought to dispossess him.” And so after she had said this to him with weeping, he turned to peace and quietness, with utter will and purpose to do after his mother’s counsel, and taking from his head his helmet and his cap of mail, he went to the place where Beli, his brother, was. And when he saw his brother coming to him, he threw aside his weapons, and put his arms about his brother’s neck, and quickly were they reconciled. And then their armies also threw down their arms, praising the peace; and they marched to Llyndain, and there they took counsel, both they and their nobles. The decision was to go to Ffraink, and subdue all its provinces to their own possession. And when they had been a year in Llyndain, they set out towards Ffraink, and began to harry the country. And when the men of Ffraink heard this, they rallied all Ffraink to one place, and fought with them, and Beli and Bran got the victory. And the men of Ffraink fled, and the Bryttaniaid chased them until they took the king prisoner, and made him submit to them. And then they destroyed all the strong forts, and by the end of the year subdued the whole kingdom.
And after this they came with their armies to Ryfain, and began destroying the strongholds throughout the Eidial, and they conquered the whole country as far as Ryfain. At that time there were in Ryfain two princes, and their names were Galins and Fforkena, and to them was committed the ruling of the country. And when they saw that no nation was able to withstand the fierceness of Beli and Bran, by the advice of the senate of Ryfain they made peace with them, and gave them great gifts of silver and gold, and promised tribute to them every year for leaving the land in peace. And for this Beli and Bran took hostages of them. And from there Beli and Bran with their hosts went to Ssermania. And then after they had begun to war against those peoples, they [the Romans] were sorry for their compact which they had made with the Bryttaniait, and broke it and went to help the men of Ssermania. And when Beli and Bran heard this, they were greatly enraged and took counsel how they might fight two armies, for it was not easy in view of the army coming from Ryfain. The decision was to leave Beli and all the Bryttaniaid with him to fight the men of Ssermania, while Bran with his troops went towards Ryfain. And when the men of Ryfain heard this, they left the men of Ssermania and sought to head off Bran and his host before they reached Ryfain. And when Beli heard this, he came with his army by night against them unto a woody glen which lay on their way, and Beli and his force hid there to waylay them. And next day, behold, the men of Ryfain coming to that place, and then they saw the arms of their enemies glittering along the glen. And then greatly were they frightened, thinking that Bran was there, and the men of Byrgwin with him. And then Beli quickly attacked them, and at once the men of Ryfain fled and left the field, for they could neither put on their armour nor form; and Beli chased them until night stopped his slaughtering. And then after getting the victory, Beli reached Bran, his brother, the third day after he had sat down before the walls of Ryfain. And then when the two armies were before the city, they attacked it fiercely, working great woe upon the men of Ryfain, and they erected a gallows before the gate of the city to hang the hostages if they would not give up the city; but for all this they held it. And they fought sometimes with their engines, at other times by shooting arrows at them and they fought every way they could. And then when Beli and Bran saw this, they burned with rage and ordered the four and twenty hostages, men of highest rank, to be banged before the city in their presence. Then the men of Ryfain marshalled their army in divisions, and came out of the city, and gave them battle in the field because word came to the men of Ryfain from the two princes who had gathered their Scattered troops saying that they were marching to their aid, and begging that they should not give up the city on any account. And then the troops in two hosts came suddenly upon the Bryttaniaid and the men of Byrgwin, and made great slaughter. And then when Beli and Bran saw the slaughter of their comrades, they were grieved, and rallied their warriors and exhorted them to fight their enemies, and they drove them far back, and in the end, after thousands on both sides had been killed, Beli and Bran got the victory, killed Galins, and took fforkena and the city. And Beli and Bran divided the booty among their comrades. And then after getting this victory, Bran lived as Emperor in Ryfain and subdued the people with infinite cruelty, and as it is told in the history of the men of Ryfain, I have not here told more of it, for too much weariness would it be to rehearse it all. And then Beli went back to Ynys Brydain, and ruled his kingdom in peace for the rest of his life. And he rebuilt the strongholds in every place where they were ruined, and built other new ones. And among these he built a city on the banks of the River Wysc; and there was the archbishop-house of Dyfed. And after the men of Ryfain came to this island, it was called Kaerllion, for there they used to dwell in winter. And Beli also built a splendid Gate in Llyndain on the banks of the Temys, which is called Bilinssgad. On its battlements he made a mighty tower, and at its base he made a water gate for embarking upon the ships. And he everywhere enforced anew his father’s laws, and gave himself to truth. And in his time there was abundance of gold and silver among the people, so that neither before nor afterward was there the like. And at last, when the day appointed for his departure from this world was come, his body was burned, and his ashes were put in a golden vessel, of wondrous craftsmanship, and were buried in Llyndain on the top of the tower above mentioned.
The Reign of Gwrgant
The Reign of
The Reign of
The Reigns of
Kynvarch, Daned, and Morydd
The Reigns of
Arthal and Eleidir
And Eleidir the second time was elevated to be king. And then came his two younger brothers to fight him, Owain and Predyr, with a great host, and got the victory and caught Eleidir, and took him to Llyndain, where they imprisoned him, and divided the kingdom between them. To Owain fell the part from the hymyr to the west, that is, Lloegr, kymry, and kerniw; and Predyr's part was from the hymyr to the gogledd, and all the gogledd. And at the end of seven years Owain died, and the whole kingdom came into the hand of Predyr; and he ruled the kingdom peacefully, so that neither of his brothers was had in memory. And then Predyr died. And then Eleidir was taken from his prison, and was made king the third time, and after spending all his days peacefully, he died.
The Reigns of
Gorviniaw through Manogan
And after him Morgan, the son of Arthal, became king, and governed the kingdom in happy peacefulness. And after him, Einon, his brother, became king; quite unlike his brother’s was his way of ruling his people; and in his sixth year he was cast out of his kingship because of his cruelty and contempt of truth, and that ruined him. And after him Eidwal, the son of Owain, his kinsman, became king; and for fear of the calamity that came upon Einion, he maintained justice among the People. And after him Rvn, son of Predyr, became king. And after him Geraint the son of Eleidir became king. And after him Kadell, son of Geraint, became king. After Kadell, Koel became king. After Koel, Porex became king. After Porex, Cheryn became king. And he had three sons, namely, ifyigniws, and Eidal, and Andras, and these one after another were kings. After them Yrien, son of Andras, became king. After him Elvyrd became king. After him came Klydoc, and after Klydoc came Klydno. After Klydno came Gorwst. After him came Mairiawn. After him Blaiddyd became king. After him came Gaff. After him came Owain; after Owain came Sayssylit; after him Blegywryd; after him Arthmael, his brother. After him Eidol. After him Ryclion, after him Rydderch, after him Sawl-benn-Ychel. After him came Pirr. After him, Kapeur, after him Manogan, his son, a notable man was he, and he loved justice and truth.
The Reign of Beli