Brut Tysillo
"Ystorya Brenhined y Brytanyeit"
Jesus MS. LXI

Prologue

Bryttaen, the best of the islands, which used to be called the white island, situated as it is in the western ocean between Ffraink and Iwerddon, [extends] eight hundred miles in its length and two hundred in its width, and whatsoever men must needs use it supplies them in unfailing plenty. And with this it is full of numerous wide-spreading plains and noble hills, and havens to which from overseas come foreign products in great variety. And there are also in it forests and thickets full of various kinds of animals and wild beasts, and many swarms of bees gathering honey among the flowers. There are with this fair pastures at the foot of wind-swept mountains, and bright, clear springs, and further, there are lakes and rivers full of various varieties of fish. Moreover, there are in it three noble rivers, namely, the Temys, and the Hymyr, and the Hafrenn. These, like three arms, divide the island; and along them come various kinds of articles of barter from countries Overseas. And further, of old there were adorning it three and thirty noble chief cities, some of which are today wasted, their walls uprooted; while others are still inhabited, with holy temples in them for the praise of God. And so it is peopled by five nations, the Bryttaniait, the Normaniaid, the Ssaesson, the Ffichtiait, and the Yssgottiaid. And of all these the Bryttaniaid were the first to settle it, from mor rrydd [the Channel] as far as the sea of Iwerddon, until the vengeance of God came upon them for their sins, which we shall presently show. And here endeth the prologue of Eneas yssgwyddwynn.

After the town was taken, Eneas fled, and Essgannys his son with him, and they came in ships to the land of Eidial, which is called the land of Ryfain. And at that time Lattinys was king in the Eidial, and he received Eneas with honour. Then after Eneas had fought with Tyrrv, king of Yttyl, and he was killed by Eneas, Essgannys got to wife Lauinia, daughter to Lattinys. And after Eneas, Yssgannys became a great man, and when Essgannys was elevated to kingly state, he built a city on the shores of the river Taiberys [Tiber]. And there a son was born to him named Ssylliys, who gave himself to secret fornication and seduced a niece, and got her with child. And when Essgannys his father learned this, he ordered the diviners to tell him by whom the girl had conceived. And after they had divined and had gained a certitude on this point, they said that the maid was with child of a son, who would kill his mother and his father, and after it happened to him to wander through many lands, would rise to great honour. Nor did the diviners deceive them. And so when the maid’s time to give birth was come, she died in childbed. And thus he slew his mother. And the boy was named Bryttys and was put out to fosterage.

And when he had been brought to the age of fifteen years, one day he was following his father in hunting, while so doing behold a great stag passed by, Bryttys bent his bow, and shot at the stag, and with that shot he struck his father with an arrow under the top of his breast and he died. And thus he slew his father also. And then after the death of Ssylhys, the men of the Eidial banished Bryttys out of his country, for it was not fitting for them to take as king over them one who had wrought such outrage as to kill his mother and father. And after his banishment from there he went as far as Groec, and he saw men of the race of Elenys, son of Priaf, of the heritors of Troyaf, in slavery under Pendrassys, king of Groec. For after the fall of Troyaf, Pyrr, son of Achilarwy, to revenge his father on them had led this nation with him, and had held them in slavery for a long time. And then when Bryttys found they were his own nation, he settled there with them. Thereupon when Bryttys had become acquainted with them, and all of them with him, so great was his talent among them that he was approved by the kings and princes; and all this by means of his bearing and his beauty, and his bravery, and his liberality, and his skill in warcraft and his renown. Wisest was he among the wise men and bravest among the war-like. And whatever also fell to him, of gold and silver, or steeds or raiment, all these he shared among his noble comrades and with any that would take hem of him. And thus, when his fame had flown throughout the lands of Groec, and all the men of the lineage of Troyaf from every place as far as the bounds of Groec, had rallied to him, they asked that he should be prince over them and free them from that slavery. And this they said he could easily do, for so great a number had assembled together that there were seven thousand fighting men. They said further, “And moreover the young man, the noblest in grroec on his father’s side, and his mother sprung from the stock of Troyaf, is relying upon us and hoping to get strong support from us. This is the reason why the men of this land make war upon him, with a brother of his by the same father, because his mother as well as his father is of Groec stock; and there is great strife between them because of three castles which the father left to that son at his death, in excess [of those left] to his brother. Of these the men of Groec seek to deprive him, because of his mother’s descent from Troyaf, therefore do the men of Groec hold with the brother against him.” And then, after Bryttys had seen the ample number of men and had seen the castles strong and ready for him, easy was it for him to comply with them, and to take the leadership upon himself.

And then after Bryttys had been elevated to be prince of the host of Troyaf, he strengthened the castles of Assarakys and filled them with men and arms and food. And when he had finished this, he and Assarakys, taking with them all their host and their goods, started towards the depths of the dense forests, where they fled, and then Bryttys sent a letter to bpendrassys, king of Groec, in this fashion:

“Bryttys, prince of the remnant of the nation of Troyaf, sends this letter to Pendrassys, king of Groec, telling him that it is not worthy in him to have and hold in captivity a right royal tribe of the line of dardar, nor to confine them more than they deserve because of their nobility. Therefore Bryttys tells him that they hold it better far to live in the wilderness, and to feed like animals on raw flesh and herbs, with freedom, than amid feasting and luxury under slavery. Even if this provoke thy pride of mastery and possession, rather than make war upon them thou shouldest forgive them, for it is both nature and duty that every slave should struggle to win back his ancestral dignity and his freedom, and we therefore pray thy forbearance and permission that with freedom we may dwell in the wilderness to which we have fled, or if freedom be denied to them in thy kingdom, permit them to seek in other lands a dwelling place without slavery.”

And when Pendrassys grasped the meaning of the letter, he marvelled greatly that such a message should be sent him, and at once called his council to him; thus was its advice, to gather a great host and go after them into the wilderness. And thus as they passed by outside the castle called Yssbaradings, Bryttys suddenly attacked them with three thousand armed men, and he found them unarmed and he wrought great havoc amongst them. And at once they betook themselves to disgraceful flight, their king in the lead. And they made for the river which is called Ystalon, and so great was their haste and their fear of Bryttys that part of them were drowned, and part were killed on the river bank, and the third part fled. Thus did he get the victory over them. And when he saw this, Antigonys the brother of bpendrassys was greatly grieved; he called his comrades to him and marshalled them, and attacked the men of Troyaf, preferring to be kified with glory than escape with shame. And he exhorted his host to fight bravely, he ordered the attack, and he dealt great blows himself. But little did it serve him, for Bryttys and his men were equipped with arms; but they [the Greeks] were unready and had not time to don their armour, and so Bryttys got the best of them at once, and captured Antigkonys the king’s brother. And then Bryttys strengthened the castle of Assarakys and put six hundred fighting men in it, and with his host returned to the forest to the place which was their dwelling. Pendrassys, worried by his flight and also by his brother’s capture, rallied as many of his host as had escaped, and the next day took stand before the castle; for he thought that Bryttys was therein, and his brother in prison and the other prisoners as well. And when he had come there he divided his host around the castle, especially [setting] the greater part to keep the gates, that none might issue forth; and another part to turn the water from the castle, and a third to make machines to fight against it [the fort], and to seek to throw it down. And in obedience to the king’s behest every one wrought with the best device he could; and when night came upon them he chose the bravest men to besiege the castle that those who were weary might sleep, before Bryttys and his host should come upon them the second time. And the castellans meanwhile resisted them manfully, shooting and throwing wildfire upon them, by all various devices seeking to drive them away from the wall. And then when they had set the machines against it [the fort] and began to dig under it, the castellans poured the wildfire and boiling water on their heads, and drove them from the walls. And then when they were wearied by day-long labour, and lack of sleep at night, and hunger and thirst, they sent messengers to Bryttys to seek help from him lest they should be forced to give up the castle.

And when Bryttys heard this, he was perplexed for he knew not how he could succour them, for he had not force sufficient to give battle to them in the field. So he planned to launch a night attack against them, and he thought to kill the pickets, and seek them in their sleep. But this he saw he could not do without the help of men of Groec. He therefore called Anakletys, a friend of Antigonys was he, drew his sword, holding him, gripped him firmly did Bryttys, and spoke to him thus: “Here, chosen youth, is thy death and end, unless thou doest faithfully the thing I require of thee. This night I will make attack upon the men of Groec, and in this way I wish that thou shouldest deceive them, in order that my way against them may be open. Go to their pickets and say that thyself and Antigonys have escaped out of my prison, and that you have left him in a woody glen and there he is, — without being able to go further because of the weight of the iron which is on him, — and beg them to come with thee. to bring him in. If you do this, I shall get my will upon them.” And then when Anaklettys saw Bryttys showing him his own death, he gave oath to be faithful to Bryttys, on condition that Antigonys should go with him. And so they started toward the men of Groec, and when be [Anaklettys] reached the pickets, they surrounded him, and asked him if he had come there to betray them. “Not so in truth, but on my back have I carried Andigonys by craft from Bryttys’s dungeon, and I left him hiding amid the thorns and briers in the glen below. So come quickly with me to fetch him.” And so they were afraid to go with him for fear of treachery, and one who knew him said that he was speaking the truth. Then in close order, the watch went with him to the place where he had said Antigonys was, and then Bryttys rushed out upon them and killed them without leaving one. And then they went on in order, and they reached the middle of the host, and no one spoke a word on the march until Bryttys and his men had surrounded the king’s tent. Then Bryttys blew his horn at the door of the tent and began to kill them in their sleep. And then from the cries of the slain the others awoke, who did not know whither to flee, until all were slain. And when the castellans knew this, they sallied forth. And when Bryttys got inside the tent of the king he seized and bound him, thinking that he would get more profit from this than from killing him. And so after the night was past, and the dawn had come, Bryttys called his men around him and divided the spoil of the dead among them, whatever each one wished. And so to the castle came Bryttys, and with him the king, a prisoner; and he strengthened the castle with men and arms.

And when the victory was theirs, Bryttys called his council in order to learn what it would advise him to demand of the king, — “For his body is in our possession, and whatever may be asked of him he will give for his freedom.” And the council said to him that it was better to take ransom from him than to dwell among enemies. And after long dispute a wise man named Membyr arose, asked silence, and spoke thus, “O brother Lords, how long wifi ye hesitate as to what I think is most likely to be for your future interest, namely, decision to go away from here, so that you and your heirs may have perpetual peace. For if you free king Pendrassys and take from him a part of Groec to dwell in, never shall you have secure peace; for so long as there is a man of rgrroec alive, they will remember last night until they take vengeance either on yourselves or on your children for this raid. My counsel to you therefore is that you take to lawful wife her that is called Enogen, his eldest daughter, and with her, gold and silver, and ships and wine and grain, and all things needful, and also his consent that we go to other lands, to whatever place God may send us, in freedom, for fear of the slavery of the men of Groec upon us and our children.” And so to his reasoning all agreed.

And then it was ordered that king Pendrassys should be brought into their midst; and Bryttys said that should he not do all things asked of him, he would get his death. And when he came forth there was set for him a seat higher than all others, and then he spoke like this. “The infernal gods have given me and Antigonys, my brother, into your hands, and lest I lose my life I must submit to you, which I promise to do, to buy of you myself and Antigonys, my brother. Nor is it strange that I should obey you, for it is blameless in me to give my well-loved daughter to yonder Young man. For I know that he comes of the line of Priaf and Enssisses, and his fame and bravery show it at this hour. Who but he could have freed the exiles of Troyaf, when they had been so long enslaved, and captive under so many princes? Who but he, with such small forces as he had, could face the king of Groec, give him battle in the field, and put him to flight, and at last capture and bind him? For this I will give my daughter to him, and give with her gold, silver, precious treasures, wine and oil and wheat and gems and ships aplenty, and however much you shall need of other things, and Enogen, my daughter. Or if you wish to dwell here, I will give you a third of my kingdom; and will remain with you a prisoner till you have received everything promised.”

And then messengers were sent to every port of grroec to collect ships and bring them to one port. In all their Number was three hundred and twenty-four ships, and at once they were loaded with such things as were named above, and all kinds of fruits; and then the king was set at liberty. And when they had embarked upon the ships, Enogen stood in the lowest bottom of the ship, between Bryttys’s hands, weeping and sobbing for longing for her country. Bryttys soothed and spoke her fair, until, wearied out with weeping, sleep fell upon her. And so for two days and a night they sailed with the wind behind them and came to an island named legetta; and it was barren, with no one inhabiting it, after it had been laid waste by a tribe called the Pirattas. And here Bryttys sent three hundred fighting men On shore to see if there were any one there, and when they saw no one there, they hunted the various animals. And when night came upon them, they came to a ruined town, vast and ancient, and there was an image of Diana, which gave answers to those who asked, and any one who sought information from her received it.

And the next morning, they returned to the ships with their loads of game of many kinds, and told Bryttys what they had seen in that island, and urged him to go to that temple to sacrifice to that goddess, and to ask of her where he should find a place to dwell in. And upon the advice of these men, Bryttys took with him Gerion, the diviner, and twelve of his elders and carrying everything needed, they went to the temple. And when he reached it, Bryttys put on a chaplet of vine leaves on his head, and came to the door of that old temple. And in the ancient law sacrifice was made to the three gods, namely, Iubiter, and Merkywri, and Diana. And then Bryttys alone came before the altar of the goddess; and in his left hand there was a vessel full of wine, and in his right hand a horn filled with the blood of a white hind; and he raised his face to the image, he spoke like this: “O thou that art the mighty Queen of the chase, and that art the guardian of the forest boar, O thou to whom it is permittea to range the paths of the air and the halls of hell, tell me what land I shall have to dwell in, and to worship thee through the ages and the years, — and I will build a temple to honour thee.” And when he had said this nine times, he went four times around the altar; then poured the wine into the jaws of the goddess, and laid himself down on the pelt of a white hind. And when it was the third hour of the night, the time of sweetest sleep, he deemed that he saw the goddess before him and speaking to him like this: “Bryttys,” said she, “under the setting of the sun, beyond the lands of Ffraink, there is an island in the ocean, on every side protected by the sea, in which giants lived aforetime, — but now it is empty. Go thou thither, for it is meet for thee and thy Descendants. And it shall be for thy sons a second Troyaf, and there shall be born kings of thy lineage, to whom the whole world shall bow.”

And when he had seen that vision, Bryttys awoke, and was bewildered as to what he had seen. And they went to the ships with joy, and hoisted sail, and cleaving the waves of ocean within the ninth day they reached the Aifric, and from thence, they knew not what land they should head for, and from thence they came to the altars of the Velystynion. And there they met great peril fighting with the Piraniaid, which were a cruel tribe. But these Bryttys overcame nevertheless, and he was enriched by their spoil. From hence they sailed until they came to the land of Mawritania, and there for lack of food and drink they had to land and plunder the whole island. And from hence they came to the caves of Erkwlff the mighty, where many of those sea beasts that are called mermaids gathered around them, and nearly sank their ships. And from thence they came unto the Tyren Sea; and on that shore there met them four clans of exiles of Troyaf, who had fled from there with Antenor; and a great man was prince over them, who was stronger and braver than any one, who was named Koroneys. And it was not more difficult for him to fight a giant than a year-old boy. And after they became acquainted, and learned that both were of one kindred, they marched together and Korinays paid homage to bryttys. And in all battles and fighting he strengthened Bryttys better than any one. And then they came to Ackwitania, and cast anchor in the port of Lingyrys [the Loire] for seven days, to see the condition of the country.

And a man was king there called Koffarffichdi [Koffar the Pict]; and when he heard of the descent of the fleet upon his country, he sent messengers to them to learn what they wanted, whether peace or war. And so as the messengers were going toward the ships, korinays, who was hunting, met them, and the messengers asked who gave him permission to hunt in the king’s forest. And he said that he had sought permission from no one to hunt wherever he willed. Whereupon one of the messengers, who was called mynbert, drew his bow and let drive an arrow at Korinays, but he dodged the arrow, quickly seized Mynnbert, and pulled the bow roughly out of his hand, and struck him on the head with it so that all his brains stuck to the bow. The other messenger barely escaped by the strength of his swiftness of foot, and that one told Koffarffichdi how mymbert had been slain. And then Koffarffichdi collected a great force intending to take revenge upon korineys for killing his messenger. And when Bryttys heard this, he strengthened his ships, and put the women and children aside, and came with all his fighting men to land against Koffarfflchdi, and fiercely did they fight. And Korineys took great shame to see that the Gwas Gwniaid [Gascons] withstood them, and that he did not see the men of Troyaf prevailing over them; and then Korineys called his own men to him, he set them as a separate force on the right of the army, and killed those people without resting, and put them to flight, leaving only the slain behind him. For when he took his two-edged axe in his hand, he kified whomever he met, for he clave them from their crowns down to the ground. And greatly marvelled his enemies to see him do so. And these words he said to them, “Whither are ye flying, ye feeble cowards? Fight with Korineys. Out upon you — for shame to fly for fear of one man! It is safe for you to fly, for I would put to flight even giants.” After he said this, Earl ssiart, with a hundred men at arms, turned back, but Korineys attacked them, and heaving up his axe, struck him on the crest of his helmet and split him to the ground, and then with his axe circling about him without rest he hewed his enemies, and every one that met him he killed or maimed at one blow. And then Bryttys saw him in that peril, and brought up his men to his support. And then was there a great battle between them and the various tribes; and straightway after that Koffarffichdi and his army were put to flight. And he went to Ffraink to his kindred to seek aid to wreak his rage upon the men of Troyaf. For at that time one custom as to dignity, Lordship, and government prevailed throughout the country, for there were twelve kings over Ffraink, but king Karwed was of higher dignity than they. And these received him cordially and promised him help to repel the foreign nation from his country and its bounds.

And then, after Bryttys had got the victory, he enriched his men with the spoils of the dead; and then marshalling his men the second time, he marched to the country, and they took every kind of goods that were in it to the ships with them and burned the cities, and took all their gold and their silver, and whatever else of value that could be carried,— and killed all the people. Then, after he had burned over the whole face of Gassgwin [Gascony], from there he went to the place called at this hour the city of tyrri. And there, when he saw a spot fitted by its strength, he measured out a place suitable for tents and raised a stockade about it, in order that they might, if need be, sustain an assault, —for they feared that Koffarffichdi and other kings might come with many armies — and there waited for them. And then when Koffarffichdi heard that they were there, he rested neither day nor night till he came to a place where he saw the whole fort. And then he said, “Alas! Alas! what sad shame of fate is this, to see an outland people with their tents pitched in my kingdom. Arm yourselves, O chieftains, catch them as sheep are caught in a pen, and we will divide them among us and scatter them all over our country as prisoners and slaves, and thus wreak our wrath and vengeance upon them.” And marshalling the men in twelve divisions, he advanced upon the men of Troyaf. When Bryttys knew this, he put on his armour, and [so did] his men, and came out against Koffarffichdi, and attacked him fiercely, instructing his men to attack when advantage served and to wait when they must. And thus the men of Troyaf conquered and compelled Koffarffichdi and his men to flee at the first rush, and in this flight were slain two thousand of them. But the numbers of Koffarfflchdi’s men and the Ffraink were tenfold larger than those of Bryttys, for every hour others came in. And then they attacked the men of Troyaf a second time, and made great slaughter and drove them back again into their castles. And so after the Ffraink had won that victory, they sat down about them, thinking to shut them up until they died of famine, or until they could put them to some death more cruel than that. And that night Bryttys took council with Korineys and the decision was that Korineys should go quietly from the camp, and hide in a neighbouring wood, and that next day when Bryttys should attack them, he should rise upon the other side, and raise a cry upon them, and make a great slaughter on the Ffraink. And this did Korineys; taking with him three thousand armed men, he went out at night and hid in the forest. And the next morning Bryttys posted his men with order and skill and gave battle in the field to the Ffraink; the Ffraink fiercely attacked in turn, so that many thousands fell on both sides. And there was a youth of Troyaf lineage, nephew to Bryttys, and his name was Tyrri, who, Korineys excepted, was the bravest. For he slew six hundred men with his own sword; but at last the Ffraink killed him, and there he was buried, and from his name that place is still called the city of tyrri, because he was buried there. And then, behold Korineys came upon them when they were unaware and suddenly attacked the rear; and when Bryttys saw this, he nerved himself and his men to bravery; and so loud was the shouting which Korinays raised that the Ffraink became disheartened, thinking there were in that place greater numbers than there were, and the Ffraink began to leave the field and to flee, and the men of Troyaf pursued them until they had the victory over them. And so, though Bryttys was joyful over getting the victory, he was sad because of his nephew tyrri’s death. And thus the number of Bryttys’s followers daily lessened, whilst that of the Ffraink increased; therefore in council Bryttys was advised to return to his ships while the greater part of his men were still whole, and having also the credit of the victory; and then to go toward the island of which the goddess had told him. And without delay, by the counsel of the nobles, they went upon the ships, taking with them whatever they desired of any valuable thing there was in that land.

And then they hoisted sail with a fair wind, and made landfall on the strand of Tatnais. For that place was the Alban, which in Kymraec is called y wenn ynys [the White Island], and no one dwelt there but a few giants; and it had a fair aspect, with many fine rivers abounding in fish, and there were in it also noble forests. And so Bryttys and his followers were pleased with the situation of the island; and the giants fled to the mountains. And then by consent of the princes, they divided the island amongst them, and began to plow and to build houses on it and to occupy it; and in a short time it might have been thought that it had been settled for many ages. And then Bryttys desired to call the island by his own name, and that the race inhabiting it should be called bryttaniaid; this also was by reason of his own name, for he wished to have eternal renown, until the day of judgment. And from that time on, the language of that people was called Bryttanec. And Korineys put on the part that came to him [the name] Kerniw [Cornwall], for he had his choice before all others, and he chose that part of the island because the giants were most numerous there, for to fight with them delighted him more [than anything]. And there was among them a certain monster called Gogmagog, who was twelve cubits in height, whose power and strength were said to be so great that he could tear from its roots down under his feet the largest oak in the forest as easily as he would pull up a little twig of hazel.

And so, as Bryttys was fighting upon a feast day in the place where he first came to land on this island, behold Gogmagog came with eleven giants and made a bloody slaughter upon the Bryttaniaid. And then many of them rallied and fought manfully with them, and slew them all except Gogmagoc, for Bryttys caused him to be kept alive because it would delight him to see Korineys fight him, for that was his desire also. And so when Korinays saw that monster toming, he thrilled with delight, and throwing off his armour, challenged the giant to come to grips with him. And they came together, stood face to face, and each one got a hold on the other with much tongue-lashing, until those that were near them were wearied by their breathing. And at once the giant hugged Korinays to him with all his might, until he broke three of his ribs, two on the left side and one on the right side. And then Korineys became enraged, and took his strength to him and lifted the giant to his shoulder, and ran with him towards a sea-crag and bearing him to its highest peak, threw him over the rock into the sea, so that he went into a thousand pieces, and the waves were discoloured by his blood for a long time. And that place from that day to this is called the giant’s Leap, or Gogmagog’s jump.

And then when the island had been divided, Bryttys desired to build a city And he went the island’s length seeking a place suitable for the purpose. And at last he came to the banks of the river Temys and he traversed the bank along the sands. And when he found a place lovely and filling his desires, he built a city there and called it Troyaf newydd, and thus it was called for a long time; and, then by corruption of that name, it was called trynofant. Afterwards it was possessed by Llydd, the son of Beli the great, the brother of Kasswallawn, the man who fought with ilkassar. And when this Llydd got the kingship he strengthened the city with [grants of] lands and with walls of wondrous art and craftsmanship; and he ordered it to be called from that time forth kaer-lydd, after his own name; and the Ssaisson called it Lwndwn. And on this account there was great contention between Llydd and Rryniaw his brother, because the name of Troyaf was blotted out.

And then when Bryttys had finished the building of the city, and had strengthened it with walls and castles, he consecrated them, and he made inflexible laws for the governance of such as should dwell there peacefully, and he put protection on the city and granted privilege to it. At this time Eli the priest ruled in Judea and the ark of the covenant was in captivity to the Pilistewission. And in Troyaf there ruled a son of Ector the mighty, after he had expelled from it the descendants of Antenor. And in the Eidial there ruled Ssylhys, the son of Yssgannys, the son of Eneas, — uncle of Bryttys, and this one was the third king after Lattinys. And then Bryttys had, by his wife Enogen, three sons, namely Locrinys, Kamber, and Albanactys. And those three sons, when their father died in the twenty-fourth year alter he came to this island, divided the island into three parts. Locrinys, for he was the eldest, took the middle of the island, and this part was called Lloegr, from his name. Kamber got the other part beyond the Hafren, and that part is called Kymry; and Albanakdys got from the river Hymyr to Cape Bladdon, and that [part] is called Yssgotlond, and from his name Alban. And thus all three reigned at the same time. And then came Hymyr, king of Hvnawd, with a large fleet to land in the Alban, and Albanactys fought with him and there Albanactys was killed, and the people of that country were compelled to fly to locrinys. And he sent to his brother, and they gathered all the Youth of the two countries, and went against Hynnyr and put him to flight, until he was drowned in this river, and from then until today this river is called Hymyr.

And then after Locrinys got the victory, he divided the spoils of the dead and all the gold and silver found in the ships. And he also took three young women fair of form and face, and one of them was daughter to the king of ssermania whom hynnyr had carried off from there with two other damsels when he plundered the country. And her name was Essyllt, and her flesh was fairer than the whitest snow, or the lily, or the tusk of the sea-beast [walrus]. And when locrinys saw her, he was inflamed with love of her, and took the maid to his bed, even as his married wife. And when korineys learned it, he was greatly incensed because locrinys had promiseu to take his daughter to wife. And then Korineys went to the king, and shaking his axe at him said like this: “Is it thus, fellow, that you repay the many wounds and injuries I suffered with your father when we fought the foreign peoples for him? Is it thus, fellow, that you repay me by disgracing my daughter, putting a barbarian maiden before her? This shall not be done cheaply by you while there is strength in my two arms, for by this axe has many a giant lost his life.” This while brandinshing his two-edged axe as if about to strike him; but their comrades went in between him and the king.

And when they had pacified them, they compelled Locrinys to take the daughter of Korineys to wife. But notwithstanding he did not abjure his love for Essyllt, but made for her in Llyndain a cave under ground and ordered his nearest friends to ward her. And when he went to visit her, he said he was going to make secret sacrifice to god, for fearing Corineys he did not dare to take her openly to his bed; and so he spent seven years with her. But after Korineys died, locrinys left gwenddolav his daughter, and publicly took essyilt into the queen’s bed. And then gwennddolav grieved, and went to kerniw, and rallied all the Youth of the province to her, and began to make war on locrinys. And then the two forces met on the banks of the river which is called vyrram, and fierce was the battle there. And there Locrinys was struck in the forehead with an arrow and was killed. And then gwennddolav took the government of the island into her own hands. And she ordered both essyilt and her daughter hafren to be taken and drowned in the river, and ever since it has been called the river Hafren throughout Ynys Brydain, and thus it will be called until the day of judgment, on account of the maiden drowned in it, so that there shall be everlasting remembrance of the daughter of Locrinys.

And after Locrinys the queen reigned twelve years, and twelve other years had locrinys reigned. And when Madoc her son came of legal age, he was made king, and she herself ruled Kerniw while she lived. And then Madoc married and of his wife had two sons, namely, Membyr and Mael, and then madoc governed the realm in peace for twelve years and then he died. And after this discord arose between his two sons about the kingdom, for each one of them wished to have it for himself. And Membyr sent a message to Mael his brother to come to talk with him with the intention of making peace, and then by treachery Membyr caused his brother to be killed. And after getting the dominion of the whole island, he grew so cruel that he killed as many nobles as there were in the island lest they should succeed to power after him, and also he left his lawful wife, the mother of Efroc the mighty, gave himself over to the sin of Ssottma and Amorra, forsaking the blameless use of nature.

In the hundredth year of his kingdom, as he was one day hunting, he went a little apart from his men in a woody glen, and there came wolves and killed him. And after the death of Membyr, Efroc his son became king, strong to rule the kingdom; and he ruled it thirty years. And he was the first king after Bryttys who went with a fleet to Ffraink. And there he killed and burned, and took their spoil and their gold and their silver, and went home with the renown of that victory, after burning the cities and utterly destroying keeps and castles. And he first built in the country beyond the Hymyr, the city called after his own name, Dinas Efroc [Efroc’s city]. And that time Dafydd was king of Karissalem. And he also built Kaer Efrawc over against Alban. And he built the castle of mount Angned, which today is called the castle of the maidens or the hill of mourning. And efroc had twenty sons by twenty wives, and thirty daughters, and he ruled this kingdom forty years. The oldest of the sons was Bryttys darian las, Gums, Rvn, Morydd, Bleiddyn, Iago, Kalan, Kynar, Yssbladen, Gwryl, Dardan, Eidiol, Ivor, Gwychyr, Gronwy, Ector, kyhylyn, Rad, Assarakys, Howel. And the sons and daughters their father sent to the eidial, to ssilmins Alban, the man who was king after Ssiliys Lattinys. And there they were given [in marriage] to nobles of the race of troyaf. And all the sons, with Assarakys as their chief, with a fleet went unto ssermania, and by the aid of ssilmins Alban they conquered ssermania and obtained that kingdom.

Bryttys darian las dwelt with his father, and reigned ten years after his father. And after him came Lleon the hero his son; a good man was he, a king upholding truth and justice.

And that Lleon steered well the governance of the kingdom; and he built toward the north of Ynys Brydain the city that is called Kaer Lleon. And at that time Sselyf, the son of Dafyd, was building the temple of Jessu Krist in Karissalym. And there came the queen of the south to listen to Sselyf’s wisdom; and Lleon ruled as king twenty-five years. But in the end of his days he became feeble, so that disorder arose in the kingdom and civil war.

And after him Rvn baladr bras, his son, reigned forty years, lacking one. And he brought his people out of war into peace. And this Rvn built Kaer Kaint, and Kaer Wynt and Kaer Vynydd y Paladr [the kaer of the mountain of the spear]; and there the eagle prophesied, foreboding [evil] to this island. And Sselyf son of Dafyd finished Kaerssalem.