The Welsh Triads or Trioedd Ynys Prydein

   The Welsh Triads or Trioedd Ynys Prydein are a mixed collection of triadic sayings that recount personages, events, or places in Welsh history. They were probably designed as mnemonic structures for fast recollection of stories by the bards. Unfortunately, there are also numerous versions with differences in names, meaning, and the order in which they are written down. There are pieces and portions included in all of the early manuscripts including the Peniarth Manuscript, the Llfyr Gwyn Rhydderch (White Book of Rhyderrch), the Llyfr Coch Hergest (Red Book of Hergest), and also the Black Book of Caermarthon. The White Book is generally dated to the early 1300's and the Red Book to about a century later. Thirteen Triads are missing from the beginning of the White Book text which begins in the middle of Triad 53 but the order and grouping of the remainder is identical with that in the Red Book. Either the red Book is a direct copy or both stem from a common source which is not the Early Version.
   They have been collected on numerous occasions and all versions I have found differ. This grouping is based on a combination of several extant on the web that include the Peniarth manuscript 16, the White Book, and information from Lady Charlotte Guest's Mabinogion notes. Triads 38 to 46 are referred to as Trioed y Meirch (the Triads of the Horses). As four of these are found in the Black Book of Caermarthen the authority for these is older than for any other of the Triads. The Book of Taliesin also contains a poem Canu y Meirch which is similar in meter and has a triadic arrangement and references to some of the same horses. Triads 50, 56 to 58, and 66 together with several triads I do not have are grouped together in Peniarth MS. 47 as Trioedd y Gwragedd (The Triads of the Women). Some of the later triads in my list are not numbered which I hope to rectify as soon as I can determine where they are generally placed in the list.
   I will continue to modify and add to the compilation provided here as time and their availability permits.

  1. Three Tribal Thrones of the Island of Britain:
    Arthur as Chief Prince in Mynyw, and Dewi as Chief Bishop, and Maelgwn Gwynedd as Chief Elder;
    Arthur as Chief Prince in Celliwig in Cornwall, and Bishop Bytwini as Chief Bishop, and Caradawg Strong-Arm as Chief Elder;
    Arthur as Chief Prince in Pen Rhionydd in the Morth, and Gerthmwl Wledig as Chief Elder, and Cyndeyrn Garthwys as Chief Bishop
    (This triad differs from others in the Peniarth MS 16. It may have been added by a monastic scribe to strengthen the claims of St. David's at Mynyw during the episcopal controversy of the early twelfth century).
  2. Three Generous Men of the Island of Britain:
    Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt,
    Mordaf the Generous, son of Serwan,
    Rhydderch the Generous, son of Tudwal Tudglyd.
    And Arthur himself was more generous than the three.
    (This was probably the original first triad. Unsurprisingly, it was particularly popular with the bards. The Arthur reference is from the later Peniarth MS. 50).
  3. Three Fair Princes (Blessed Kings)of the Island of Britain:
    Owain son of Urien,
    Rhun son of Maelgwn,
    Rhufawn befr the son of Deorath (Dewarth) Wledig.
  4. Three Well-Endowed (Learned) Men of the Island of Britain:
    Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
    and Llachau son of Arthur,
    and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
    (Deifnyawc here may mean "qualified by descent to rule")
  5. Three Pillars of Battle of the Island of Britain:
    Dunawd Fur son of Pabo Pillar of Britain,
    and Gwallawg son of Lleenawg,
    and Cynfelyn Drwagl.
  6. Three Bull-Protectors of the Island of Britain:
    Cynfawr Host-Protector, son of Cynwyd Cynwydion,
    and Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw,
    and Urien son of Cynfarch.
  7. Three Bull-Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
    Elinwy son of Cadegr,
    and Cynhafal son of Argad,
    and Afaon son of Taliesin.
    The three of them were sons of bards (White Book Version).
  8. Three Prostrate Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
    Llywarch Hen the son of Elidir Llydanwyn,
    and Manawydan son of Llyr Half-Speech,
    and Gwgon Gwron son of Peredur son of Eliffer of the Great Retinue.
    And this is why those were called "Prostrate Chieftains": because they would not seek a dominion, which nobody could deny to them. (The original meaning of the Triad was probably "subdued by misfortune". The later White Book explanation interprets Lledyf in the sense of a person who does not resist when others forcibly deprive him of his rights.)
  9. Three Sovereigns (Chieftains) of Arthur's Court:
    Goronwy (Gobrwy) son of Echel Vorddwytwll (Mighty-Thigh),
    Cadr(i)eth ('Fine-Speech') son of Porthawr Gadw,
    and Fleudur Fflam ('Flame') the son of Godo.
    (This is the only Early Version Triad which uses llys arthur in place of ynys prydein.)
  10. Three Chieftains of Deira and Bernica:
    Gall son of Disgyfdawd,
    and Ysgafnell son of Disgyfdawd,
    and Diffydell son of Disgyfdawd.
    The three of them were sons of bards.
  11. Three Red-Speared Bards of the Island of Britain:
    Tristfardd, bard of Urien,
    and Dygynnelw, bard of Owain son of Urien,
    and Afan Ferddig, bard of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan.
  12. Three Frivolous Bards of the Island of Britain:
    and Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
    and Rahawd son of Morgant.
  13. Three Chief Officers of the Island of Britain:
    Caradawg son of Bran,
    and Cawrdaf son of Caradawg,
    and Owain son of Maxen Wledig.
  14. Three Who Had The Command Of The Fleets Of The Island Of Britain (Seafarers) of the Island of Britain:
    Geraint son of Erbin,
    and Gwenwynwyn son of Naf (Naw),
    and March son of Meirchiawn.
    Each of them had six score vessels with six score men in each.
  15. Three Roving Fleets of the Island of Britain:
    The Fleet of Llawr son of Eiryf,
    and the Fleet of Divwng son of Alan,
    and the Fleet of Solor son of Murthach.
    (This may be a pair with Triad 14: Irish rovers as opposed to Britons. One of the names is Irish; others may be corruptions.)
  16. Three Powerful Shepherds of the Island of Britain:
    Riueri son of Tanwn,
    and Dunawd the Shepherd,
    and Pryder (=Care) son of Dolor (=Grief) of Deira and Bernica.
    (This may form a pair with Triad 26. Alternatively, it may mean shepherd in the sense of ecclesiastics.)
  17. Three Fettered Men of the Island of Britain:
    Cadwaladr the Blessed,
    and Rhun son of Maelgwn,
    and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
    And this is why those men were called Fettered: because horses could not be obtained that were suited to them, owing to their size; so they put fetters of gold around the small of their legs, on the cruppers of their horses, behind their backs; and two golden plates under their knees, and because of this the knee is called 'knee-pan'. (The imaginative explanation is from the White Book version. The original meaning of Hualavc and elsewhere hual has been interpreted as the torque worn by a chief prince. Gildas reports Maelgwn's great stature").
  18. Three Battle-Horsemen of the Island of Britain:
    Caradawg Strong-Arm,
    and Me(n)waedd of Arllechwedd,
    and Llyr of the Hosts.
  19. Three Enemy-Subduers of the Island of Britain:
    Griediawl Enemy-Subduer son of E(n)vael Adrann,
    and Gweir of Great Valour,
    and Drystan son of Tallwch.
  20. Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
    and Rhun son of Beli,
    and Morgant the Wealthy.
  21. Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain:
    Drystan son of Tallwch,
    and Hueil son of Caw,
    and Cai son of Cenyr of the Fine Beard.
    And one was diademed above the three of them:
    that was Bedwyr son of Bedrawc.
    (Bedwyr may be a scribal interpolation but Cai and Bedwyr are nearly always named in together in Welsh sources.)
  22. Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain,
    three sons of Gleissiar Gogled and Haernwedd Vradawc (the Wily):
    and Henbrien (Henben),
    and Aedenawg (Edenawg)
    who returned from battle on their biers.
  23. Three Arrogant Men of the Island of Britain:
    Sawyl High-Head,
    and Pasgen son of Urien,
    and Rhun son of Einiawn.
    (Sir Ifor Williams has argued that the verb traha has a meaning of over-weening pride to be followed by a fall)
  24. Three Slaughter-Blocks of the Island of Britain:
    Gilbert son of Cadgyffro,
    and Morfran son of Tegid,
    and Gwgawn Red-Sword.
    (The Welsh is Ysgym(m)yd(d). There is not a very satisfactory English equivalent. Gilbert has been identified as one of the two Gilberts who as Counts of Clare ruled Ceredigion in the twelfth century and were father and grandfather to Strongbow).
  25. Three Battle-Leaders of the Island of Britain:
    Selyf son of Cynan Garrwyn,
    and Urien son of Cynfarch,
    and Afaon son of Taliesin.
    (this is why they were called aeruedogeon: because they avenged their wrongs from their graves. The Welsh is Aer(uedawc). The scribe who added the 'explanation' for the White Book was ignorant of the meaning).
  26. Three Powerful Swineherds of the Island of Britain:
    Drystan son of Tallwch, who guarded the swine of March son of Meirchiawn, while the swineherd went to ask Essyllt to come to a meeting with him. And Arthur was seeking (to obtain) one pig from among them, either by deceit or by force, but he did not get it;
    and Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, who guarded the swine of Pendaran Dyfed in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn;
    and Coll son of Collfrewy, who guarded Henwen, the sow of Dallwyr Dallben, when about to bring forth her litter, went to Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall, and from there she went into the sea. And at Aber Tarogi in Gwent Is Coed she came to land. And Coll son of Collfrewy with his hand on her bristles wherever she went, whether by sea or by land. And in Gwent she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee; and therefore that place is the best for wheat and bees. And from there she went to Llonion in Pembroke, and there she brought forth a grain of barley and a bee. From thence she made for the Hill of Cyferthwch in Eryri; there she brought forth a wolf-cub and a young eagle. And Coll son of Collfrewy gave the eagle to Brennach the Irishman of the North, and the wolf he gave to Menwaedd son of Arllechwedd; and these were the Wolf of Menwaedd and the Eagle of Brennach. And from thence she went to the Black Stone in Llanfair in Arfon, and there she brought forth a kitten; and Coll son of Collfrewy threw that kitten into Menai. And she was afterwards Palug's Cat.
  27. Three Enchanters of the Island of Britain:
    Coll son of Collfrewy,
    and Menw son of Teirgwaedd,
    and Drych son of Kibddar.
  28. Three Great Enchantments of the Island of Britain:
    The Enchantment of Math son of Mathonwy (which he taught to Gwydion son of Don),
    and the Enchantment of Uthyr Pendragon (which he taught to Menw son of Teirwaedd),
    and the Enchantment of Gwythelyn the Dwarf (which he taught to Coll son of Collfrewy his nephew).
  29. Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
    The War-Band of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan, who were with him seven years in Ireland; and in all that time they did not ask him for anything, lest they should be compelled to leave him;
    and the second, the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, who went to sea for their lord;
    and the third, the War-Band of Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month after their lord was slain.
    The number of the War-Band of each of those men was twenty-one hundred men.
  30. Three Faithless War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
    The War-Band of Goronwy the Radiant of (Penllyn), who refused to receive the poisoned spear from Lleu Skilful-Hand on behalf of their lord, at the Stone of Goronwy at the head of Cynfal;
    and the War-Band of Gwrgi and Peredur, who abandoned their lord at Caer Greu, when they had an appointment to fight the next day with Eda Great-Knee; and there they were both slain;
    and the War-Band of Alan Fyrgan, who turned away from him by night, and let him go with his servants to Camlan. And there he was slain. (The meaning of Anyweir later became confined to the sense of unchaste and finally indecent. Alan Fyrgan is an anachronism; he was a twelfth-century Duke of Brittany. His name may have replaced another which it resembled).
  31. Three Noble Retinues of the Island of Britain:
    The Retinue of Mynyddawg of Eiddyn,
    and the Retinue of Melyn son of Cynfelyn,
    and the Retinue of Dryon son of Nudd.
    (The distinction between teulu (war-band) and gosgordd (retinue) is unclear. Noble could refer to valour).
  32. Three Men Who Performed The Three Unfortunate Assassinations:
    Gall son of Dysgyfdawd who slew the Two Birds of Gwenddolau. And they had a yoke of gold on them. Two corpses of the Cymry they ate for their dinner, and two for their supper;
    and Ysgafnell son of Dysgyfdawd, who slew Edelfled king of Lloegr;
    and Diffydell son of Dysgyfdawd who slew Gwrgi Garwlwyd ('Rough Grey'). That Gwrgi used to make a corpse of one of the Cymry every day, and two on each Saturday so as not to slay on a Sunday. (Possibly a facetious adaptation of Triad 10 to form a new triad pair with Triad 33. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Ethelfrith was killed by Raedwald of East Anglia.)
  33. Three Unfortunate Assassinations of the Island of Britain:
    Heidyn son of Enygan, who slew Aneirin of Flowing-Verse, Prince of Poets,
    and Llawgad Trwm Bargod Eidyn ('Heavy Battle-Hand of the Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon son of Taliesin,
    and Llofan Law Ddifo ('Ll. Severing Hand') who slew Urien son of Cynfarch.
  34. Three Unfortunate Hatchet-Blows of the Island of Britain:
    The Blow of Eidyn on the Head of Aneirin,
    and the Blow on the Head of Golydan the Poet,
    and the Blow on the head of Iago son of Beli.
  35. Three Levies That Departed From This Island, And Not One Of Them Came Back:
    The first went with Elen of the Hosts and Cynan her brother,
    The second went with Yrp of the Hosts, who came here to ask assistance in the time of Cadial son of Eryn. and all he asked of each Chief Fortress was twice as many (men) as would come with him to it; and to the first fortress there came only himself and his servant. (And it proved grievous to have given him that.) Nevertheless that was the most complete levy that ever went from this Island, and no (man) of them ever came back. The place where those men remained was on two islands close to the Greek sea; those islands are Gals and Avena.
    The third levy went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And those men came from Arllechwedd. They went with Caswallawn their uncle across the sea in pusuit of the men of Caesar. The place where those men are is in Gascony. And the number that went in each of those Hosts was twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts: they were so called because the gold and silver of the Island went with them. And they were picked men.
  36. Three Oppressions That Came To This Island, And Not One Of Them Went Back:
    One of them (was) the people of the Coraniaid, (The Coraniaid (y Corr(y)anyeit) may be the Tylwyth Teg) who came here in the time of Caswallawn (=Lludd?) son of Beli: and not one of them went back. and they came from Arabia.
    The second Oppression : the Gwyddyl Ffichti (The Gwyddyl Ffichti are the Picts). And not one of them went back.
    The third Oppression: the Saxons, with Horsa and Hengist as their leaders.
  37. Three Concealments and Three Disclosures of the Island of Britain:
    The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was buried in the White Hill in London. and as long as the Head was there in that position, no Oppression would ever come to this Island;
    The second: the Bones of Gwerhefyr the Blessed which were buried in the Chief Ports of this Island;
    The third: the Dragons which Lludd son of Beli buried in Dinas Emrys in Eryri.
    (the text of the Early Version Triad is incomplete. The Red Book's version includes the disclosures: the Bones (for the love of a woman) and the Dragons by Gwrtheyrn the Thin (Vortigen); the Head by Arthur because it did not seem right to him that this Island should be defended by the strength of anyone other than him).
  38. An Alternate Variation

    Three Closures and Disclosures of the Island;
    First the head of Bendigeid Vran ab Llyr, which Owain the son of Maxen Wledig buried under the White Tower in London, and while it was so placed no invasion could be made upon this Island;
    the second was the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed [Vortimer], which were buried in the chief harbour of the Island, and while they remained there hidden all invasions were ineffectual.
    The third was the dragons buried by Lludd ab Beli, in the city of Pharaon, in the rocks of Snowdon. And the three closures were made under the blessing of God and his attributes, and evil befel from the time of their disclosure.
    Gwrtheyrn Gwrtheneu [Vortigern], disclosed the dragons to revenge the displeasure of the Cymry against him, and he invited the Saxons in the guise of men of defence to fight against the Gwyddyl Ffychti;
    and after this he disclosed the bones of Gwrthevyr the Blessed, through love of Ronwen [Rowena], the daughter of the Saxon Hengist.
    And Arthur disclosed the head of Bendigeid Vran ab Llyr, because he chose not to hold the Island except by his own strength. And after the three disclosures came the chief invasions upon the race of the Cymry.

  39. Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
    Slender Grey, horse of Caswallawn son of Beli,
    and Pale Yellow of the Stud, horse of Lleu Skilful-Hand,
    and Host-Splitter, horse of Caradawg Strong-Arm.
  40. Three Chief Steeds of the Island of Britain:
    Tall Black-Tinted, horse of Cynan Garrwyn,
    and Eager Long Fore-Legs, horse of Cyhored son of Cynan,
    and Red ... Wolf-Tread, horse of Gilbert, son of Cadgyffro. (The third horse is Rudvreon Tuthvleid or Ruthir ehon tuth bleit in the Black Book version of Triad 42 and its rider is the same interloper as in Triad 24).
  41. Three Plundered Horses of the Island of Britain:
    Cloven-Hoof, horse of Owain son of Urien,
    and Long-Tongue, horse of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
    and Bucheslom, horse of Gegawn of the Red-Sword.
  42. Three Lover's Horses (Beloved Horses) of the Island of Britain:
    Grey Fetlock, horse of Dalldaf son of Cunin Cof,
    and Spotted Dun, horse of Rahawd son of Morgant,
    and Pale White Lively-Back, horse of Morfran son of Tegid.
  43. Three Lively Steeds of the Island of Britain:
    Grey, horse of Alser son of Maelgwn,
    and Chesnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai,
    and Roan Cloven-Hoof, horse of Iddon son of Ynyr Gwent.
    (There is much confusion between the different versions of this triad, both as to the names of the horses and of their owners).
  44. Three Pack-Horses of the Island of Britain:
    Black, horse of Brwyn son of Cunedda,
    and Huge-Yellow, horse of Pasgen son of Urien,
    and Dun-Grey, horse of Rhydderch Hael.
  45. Three Horses who carried the Three Horse-Burdens:
    Black Moro, horse of Elidir Mwynfawr, who carried on his back seven and a half people from Penllech in the North to Penllech in Mon. These were the seven people: Elidir Mwynfawr, and Eurgain his wfe, daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd, and Gwyn Good Companion, and Gwyn Good Distributor, and Mynach Naomon his counsellor, and Prydelaw the Cupbearer, his butler, and Silver Staff his servant, and Gelbeinevin his cook, who swam with his two hands to the horses crupper - and that was the half person.
    and Corvan, horse of the sons of Eliffer, bore the second Horse-Burden: he carried on his back Gwrgi and Peredur and Dunawd the Stout and Cynfelyn the Leprous(?), to look upon the battle-fog of the (host of) Gwenddolau (in) Ar(f)derydd. (And no one overtook him but Dinogad son of Cynan Garwyn, (riding) upon Swift Roan, and he won censure and dishonour from then till this day.)
    and Heith, horse of the sons of Gwerthmwl Wledig, bore the third Horse-Burden: he carried Gweir and Gleis and Archanad up the hill of Maelawr in Ceredigion to avenge their father.
  46. Three Prominent Oxen of the Island of Britain:
    Yellow Pale-White,
    and Chestnut, ox of Gwylwylyd,
    and the Speckled Ox.
  47. Three Prominent Cows of the Island of Britain:
    Speckled, cow of Maelgwn Gwynedd,
    and Grey-Skin, cow of the sons of Eliffer of the Great War-Band,
    and Cornillo, cow of Llawfrodedd the Bearded.
  48. Three Men Who Received The Might Of Adam:
    Hercules the Strong,
    and Hector the Strong,
    and Samson the Strong.
    They were, all three, as strong as Adam himself.
  49. Three Men Who Received The Beauty Of Adam:
    Absalom son of David,
    and Jason son of Aeson,
    and Paris son of Priam.
    They were, all three, as comely as Adam himself.
  50. Three Men Who Received The Wisdom Of Adam:
    Cato the Old,
    and Bede,
    and Siblo the Wise.
    They were, all three, as wise as Adam himself.
  51. Three Women Who Received The Beauty Of Eve in three third-shares:
    Diadema (=Dido?), mistress of Aeneas White-Shield,
    and Elen the Magnificent, the woman on whose account was the destruction of Troy,
    and Polixena, daughter of Priam the Old, king of Troy.
    (Eve was as fair as all of the three.)
  52. Three Dishonoured Men of the Island of Britain:
  53. Three Supreme (Exalted) Prisoners of the Island of Britain:
    Llyr Llediaith, in the prison of Euroswydd Wledig, (Lady Guest believes this name to probably be Ostorius, the Roman commander)
    and Mabon (Madoc) the son of Modron,
    and Geyr (Geiryoed) the son of Geyrybed,
    and one more exalted than the three, and that was Arthur,
    who was for three nights in the Castle of Oeth and Anoeth,
    and three nights in the prison of Wen Pendragon,
    and three nights in the dark prison under the stone -
    And one youth released him from these three prisons; that youth was Goreu the son of Custennin, his cousin.
    The Castle of Oeth and Anoeth is spoken of in the Mabinogion and in another series of the Triads it is named as the prison of the above-mentioned Geyr. In this version, Arthur is not alluded to, but all the members of the families of the other prisoners are said to have shared their captivity, which is designated as the most complete ever known to have taken place).
  54. Three Harmful Blows of the Island of Britain:
  55. Three Unrestrained Ravagings of the Island of Britain:
  56. Three Quests that were obtained from Powys:
  57. Arthur's Three Great Queens:
    Gwenhwyfar daughter of (Cywryd) Gwent,
    and Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gwythyr son of Greidiawl,
    and Gwenhwyfar daughter of Gogfran the Giant.
  58. And his Three Mistresses were these:
    Indeg daughter of Garwy the Tall,
    and Garwen ("Fair Leg") daughter of Henin the Old,
    and Gwyl ("Modest") daughter of Gendawd ("Big Chin").
  59. Three Amazons of the Island of Britain:
    The first of them, Llewei daughter of Seitwed,
    and Rore(i) daughter of Usber,
    and Mederi Badellfawr ("Big Knee"?).
  60. Three Unfortunate Counsels of the Island of Britain:
    To give place for their horse's fore-feet on the land to Julius Caesar and the men of Rome, in requital for Meinlas (Meinlas is the horse bestowed on Caswallawn in triad 38);
    and the second: to allow Horse and Hengist and Rhonwen into this Island;
    and the third: the three-fold dividing by Arthur of his men with Medrawd at Camlann.
  61. Three Gate-Keepers at the Action of Bangor Orchard:
    Gwgon Red Sword,
    and Madawg son of Rhun,
    and Gwiawn son of Cyndrwyn.
    And three others on the side of Lloegr: (This may be a reference to the Battle of Chester in 616).
    Hawystyl the arrogant,
    and Gwaetcym Herwuden,
    and Gwiner.
  62. Three Golden Corpses of the Island of Britain:
    Madawg son of Brwyn,
    and Cengan Peilliawg,
    and Rhu(f)awn the Radiant son of Gwyddno.
  63. Three Fettered War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
  64. Three Bull-Spectres of the Island of Britain:
    The Spectre of Gwidawl,
    and the Spectre of Llyr Marini,
    and the Spectre of Gyrthmwl Wledig.
  65. Three Wild-Spectres of the Island of Britain:
    The Spectre of Banawg,
    and the Spectre of Ednyfedawg the Sprightly,
    and the Spectre of Melen.
  66. Three Unrestricted Guests of the Arthur's Court, and Three Wanderers:
    Llywarch Hen,
    and Llemenig,
    and Heledd.
  67. Three Faithful Women of the Island of Britain:
    Ardd(u)n wife of Cadgor son of Gorolwyn,
    and Efeilian wife of Gwydyr the Heavy,
    and Emerchred wife of Mabon son of Dewengan.
  68. Three Golden Shoemakers of the Island of Britain:
  69. Three Kings who were (sprung) from Villeins:
  70. Three Defilements of the Severn:
  1. Three Tribal Herdsmen Of The Island Of Britain
    Llawnrodded Varvawc who tended the kine of Nudd Hael, the son of Senyllt, in whose herd were twenty-one thousand milch cows;
    and Bennren, who kept the herd of Caradawc the son of Bran and his tribe, in Gorwenydd in Glamorganshire;
    and Gwdion the son of Don, who kept the herd of the tribe of Gwynedd, above the Conwy.
  1. Three Principal Enchanters: (who are styled "Men of Illusion and Phantasy")
    Math ab Mathonwy, who declared his illusion to Gwdion the son of Don;
    and Menyw the son of Teirgwaedd, who taught his illusion to Uthyr Pendragon;
    and Rhuddlwm the Giant, who learnt his illusion from Eiddilig the Dwarf, and Coll the son of Collfrewi.
  1. The Three Great Exploits Of The Island Of Britain :
    The ship of Nevydd Nav Neivion, which carried in it a male and female of all things living, when the Lake of floods burst forth;
    and the horned oxen of Hu the Mighty, which drew the Avanc of the Lake to land, so that the Lake burst forth no more;
    and the stones of Gwyddon Ganhebon, on which were read all the arts and sciences of the world.
  1. Three Compeers of the Court of Arthur
    Dalldav The Son Of Kimin Cov;
    and Trystan mab March,
    and Rhyhawd mab Morgant ab Adras
  1. Three Golden-Tongued Knights, Whom No One Could Refuse Whatsoever They Might Ask
    Drudwas mab Tryffin;
    and Gwalchmai ab Gwyar,
    and Eliwlod ab Madawc ab Uthur.
    For there was neither King, nor Earl, nor Lord, to whom these came, but would listen to them before all others; and whatever request they made, it would be granted them, whether willingly or unwillingly; and thence were they called the Golden Tongued.
  1. Three Baptismal Bards of the Isle of Britain:
    Merddin Emrys,
    And Taliesin, Chief of Bards,
    and Merddin, son of Madoc Morvryn.
  2. Three Blissful Rulers of the Island of Britain:
    Bran the Blessed, the son of Llyr Llediaith, who first brought the faith of Christ to the nation of the Cymry from Rome, where he was seven years a hostage for his son Caradawc, whom the Romans made prisoner through the craft, and deceit, and treachery of Aregwedd Foeddawg [usually supposed to be Cartismandua].
    The second was Lleurig ab Coel ab Cyllyn Sant, who was called Lleufer Mawr, [the great Light], and built the ancient church at Llandaff, which was the first in Britain, and who gave the privileges of land, and of kindred, and of social rights, and of society to such as were of the faith of Christ.
    The third was Cadwaladyr the Blessed, who gave refuge, with his lands, and with all his goods, to the believers who fled from the Saxons without faith, and from the aliens who would have slain them.

    Three Knights Of Battle Were In The Court Of Arthur;
    Cadwr, the Earl of Cornwall;
    and Lancelot du Lac;
    and Owain the son of Urien Rheged.
    and this was their characteristic, that they would not retreat from battle, neither for Spear, nor for Arrow, nor for Sword, and Arthur never had shame in battle, the day he saw their faces there, and they were called the Knights of Battle.

    Three Counselling Knights Were In The Court Of Arthur,
    Cynon the son of Clydno Eiddin,
    and Aron the son of Kynfarch ap Meirchion gul,
    and Llywarch hen the son of Elidir Lydanwyn.
    and these three knights were the Counsellors of Arthur, and whatever dangers threatened him in any of his wars, they counselled him, so that none was able to overcome Arthur; and thus he conquered all the nations through three things which followed him; and these were, Good hope, and the consecrated arms which had been sent him, and the virtue of his warriors; and through these he came to wear twelve crowns upon his head, and he became Emperor of Rome.

    The Three Ardent Lovers Of The Island Of Britain,
    Caswallawn the son of Beli for Flur the daughter of Mugnach Gorr,
    and Trystan the son of Talluch for Yseult the wife of March Meirchawn his uncle,
    and Kynon the son of Clydno Eiddin for Morvyth the daughter of Urien.

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