Did the Time Period in which a story was developed effect the Legend of Arthur and the Holy Grail?

    The following is a listing of the major Arthurian works and the probable or actual date of their publishing. It is often difficult to understand the process by which a legend is formed.
    Transmission by song, spoken prose, or written word over time leads to errors in transcription, transmutation, and re-interpretation for political, moral, or religious purposes. This list is provided as one reference: dating the time and political events that shaped the legend into its present form by the influence they exerted over the writers and historians that developed it. As this site progresses, this reference will be modified to divide the timeline up into these historical spheres of influence and to discuss their effect on our story. This is not the only reference. We must also deal with etymology, the language and grammar used, and to discuss the earlier works used by each author in creating his/her own version. Recent, more scientific method studies are not included at this time and will be added later. Comments, additions, and corrections are solicited. This listing is based on an original document created by David Tanquay from Kitchener, Ontario, Canada who has given permission for its use here. I have modified the original format to fit my FAQ design but the content as of this date still reflects his original hard work. You can reach David at David Tanguay .

c. 540

Gildas, de Excidio Brittonum (L), Excerpt included here dealing with probable Arthurian matters

c. 700-800

Nennius, Historia Brittonum (L), Excerpt of Arthurian period

731

Bede, History of the English Church (L)
Annales Cambriae (L), Excerpt

c. 891-1154

Saxon Chronicle - compilation of a number of chronicles redacted over a long period and ending around the troubling period following 1066 and the subjugation of the Saxons

1135

Geoffrey of Monmouth, Prophetia Merlini (L pr)

1136

Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae (L pr-c)

c.1150

Tristan (F p), lost, the other variations of the story are believed to be based on this original
Geffroi Gaimar, Estoire des Angles (F p-c), adaptation of Geoffrey, extended to the end of the reign of William Rufus, but the part of Geoffrey is lost

c.1150-75

Robert Biket, Lai du Cor (p)

1151

Geoffrey of Monmouth, Vita Merlini (L p)

1155

Wace, Roman de Brut (F p-c),  influential translation of Geoffrey

c.1160-80

Marie de France, Lais (F p), collection of shorter poems, probably based on English songs

c.1165-76

Chrétien de Troyes, Cligés (F p)
Chrétien de Troyes, Lancelot (F p)
Chrétien de Troyes, Yvain (F p)
Chrétien de Troyes, Erec (F p)

c.1170

Eilhart von Oberge, Tristan (G p), faithful translation of the lost French Tristan (1150)

c.1170-5

Thomas, Tristan (F p), fragments from the latter part only (see Gottfried von Strassburg)

c.1175-86

Heinrich von Veldeke, Eneit (G p)

c.1184-5

Andreas Capellanus, De Amore (L pr), a manual on love and courtship, one chapter is an Arthurian romance

c.1185-90

Renart(-aud) de Beaujeu, Le Bel Inconnu (F p)  aka "Guinglain"

c.1190

Layamon, Brut (p), expanded translation of Wace into alliterative verse, also spelled Lazamon, Lawman
Chrétien de Troyes, Perceval (F p), plus 2 anonymous prologues:
"The Elicidation"  (lousy)
"The Bliocadran", good intro but poor style
4 continuations:
  before 1200  "Gawain's continuation", good, but doesn't conclude the story
  before 1200  "the Perceval continuation", good, still doesn't conclude, continues the first
  c.1214-27  Manessier, lower quality, provides conclusion, continues the second
  c.1226-30  Gerbert de Montreuil, low quality alternate conclusion, continues the second, some redactors have inserted this before Manessier, with slight modifications to preserve continuity

c.1190-2

Hartmann von Aue, Erek (G p), from Chrétien's "Erec"

c.1191

Béroul, Tristan (F p), only middle part of story remains

c.1190-1210 

Perlesvaus (F pr) aka "The High History of the Holy Grail"

c.1194-1203 

Ulrich von Zatzikhoven, Lanzelet (G p)

c.1200-1300

Heldris de Cornualle, Le roman de Silence (F p), it may not be Arthurian
Ulrich von Turheim, Tristan (G p)
Folie Tristan (Berne) (F p)
Folie Tristan (Oxford) (F p), different from above
Tristan als Monch (G p)
Les Enfances Gauvain (F p), mostly lost
Januals liódh (N p)
Geitarlauf (N p), trans. of Marie de France poems (Lanval and Chevrefeuil)

c.1200

Gereint (B pr), same story as Chrétien's "Erec"
Owein (B pr), same story as Chrétien's "Yvain"
Peredur (B pr), same story as Chrétien's "Perceval"
Melion (p), lay, similar to Marie de France
Tyolet (p), lay, similar to Marie de France

c.1202-12

Robert de Boron, Joseph d'Arimathie (F p), early history of grail (pre-Arthur)
Robert de Boron, Merlin (F p), mostly lost but exists in prose redactions

1202

Hartmann von Aue, Iwein (G p), from Chrétien's "Yvain"

c.1204-10

Wirnt von Gravenberg, Wigalois (G p)

c.1204-12

Wolfram von Eschenbach, Parzival (G p), "the greatest medieval German epic"

c.1210

Gottfried von Strassburg, Tristan (G p), the very end is missing
Le Chevalier à l'Épée (F p)

c.1210-20

Didot Perceval (F pr) aka "Perceval le Gallois ou le conte du Graal", contains a prose Perceval and a prose Mort Artu. The manuscript also contains prose redactions of Robert de Boron suggesting this is one big prose redaction of a Boron tetralogy (Perceval and Mort Artu being lost), may be just the work of a continuator
Paiende Maisières, La Mule sans Frein (F p), same story as Diu Krone
Raoul, La Vengeance Raguidel (F p), not Raoul de Houdenc

c.1210-25

Yder (F p)

c.1215-30

Vulgate Cycle (F pr), Very well written, the major canon of the tale later added: (both Boron redactions) (precede the others)
- Estoire del Saint Grail (Joseph d'Arimathie)
- Estoire de Merlin (Boron's Merlin + an extended chronicle)
- Originally 3 branches: (called "prose Lancelot", "Roman du L."
- Lancelot (Lancelot du Lac)
- The Quest for the Holy Grail (Queste del Saint Graal)
- The Death of Arthur (Mort Artu)

c.1220

Heinrich von dem Turlin, Diu Krône (Austrian p)
Breta sogur (N p-c), trans. of Geoffrey

c.1200-18

Gunnlaug Leifsson, Merlínusspá (N p), trans. of Geoffrey's "Prophecies of Merlin"

c.1220-50

Durmart le Gallois (F p)
Gliglois (F p), about a squire of Gawain

c.1225

Raoul de Houdenc, Meraugis de Portlesguez (F p)
Guillaume le Clerc, Fergus (F p)

c.1225-8

Jaufré (F p)

c.1225-35

Prose Tristan (F pr) aka "Le Roman de Tristan de Léonis". This unites the Tristan legend with Arthurian legend
Meriadeuc (F p) aka "Le Chevalier aux Deux Épées"
Brother Robert, Tristams saga (N p), trans. of Thomas

c.1230-40

Roman du Graal (F pr) aka "the Pseudo-Borron Cycle". Includes varaint versions of Estoire del Saint Graal, Suite du Merlin, Queste del Saint Graal, Mort Artu. Excludes the Lancelot (by design), forms a very cohesive whole
Livre D'Artus (pr), continuation of Boron's "Merlin"
Erex saga (N p), trans. of Chrétien's "Erec"
Ivens saga Artuskappa (N p), trans. of Chrétien's "Yvain"
Mottuls saga (N p)

c.1235-40

Palamedes (F pr), patchwork of adventures

c.1250

L'Atre Perilleux (F p)
Pennic and Pieter Vostaert, Walewein (D p), not Pennic Vostaert, just Pennic
Lodewijk van Velthelm, Perchevael (D p), trans. of Chrétien
Wigamur (G p)
Parcevals saga (N p), trans. of first half of Chrétien's "Perceval"
Valvers páttr (N p), trans. of rest of Chrétien's "Perceval"

c.1250-75

Prose Tristan (second version) (F pr), rewriting of the previous (1225) prose Tristan
Arthour and Merlin (p)
Hunbaut (F p)
Floriant et Florete (F p)

c.1250-1300

Ferguut (D p), trans. of the Guillaume Fergus (1225)

c.1268

Claris et Laris (F p)

c.1260-90

Les Merveilles de Rigomer (F p), the conclusion is missing

1261-1326

Joseph-Merlin cycle (D p), Jacob van Maerlant
"Historie van den Grale" [1261], based on Boron
"Merlijns Boeck", based on Robert de Boron
Lodewijk van Velthelm, version of "Livre d'Artus" [1326], the latter author's work blends in as a continuation

c.1270-80

the compilation of Rusticiano da Pisa (F pr). a patchwork of adventures

c.1272-9

Les Prophécies de Merlin (F pr)

c.1280 

Girard d'Ameins, Escanor (F p), gaps in manuscript
Historia Meriadoci (L pr), same author as "De Ortu Walwanii"
De Ortu Walwanii (L pr), same author as "Historia Meriadoci"

c.1290

Robert of Gloucester (p-c)

c.1300

Arthur and Gorlagon (L pr)
Sir Tristrem (p)
Le Chevalier du Papegau (F pr), bunch of adventures of Arthur, not tied to any cycle
De Ridder metter Mouwen (D p)

1303

Herra Ivan (Norse p), trans. of Chrétien's "Yvain"

c.1300-20

Lancelot cycle (D p), includes
"Lancelot" from "Roman du Graal", "Queste del Saint Graal" from Vulgate", "Mort Artu" from Vulgate

c.1320

De Wrake van Ragiesel (D p)

c.1320-40

Thomas Chestre, Libeaus Desconus (p), authorship not certain, see also "Le Bel Inconnnu" and "Wigalois"
Sir Percyvelle of Galles (p)
Thomas Chestre, Sir Launfal (p)

c.1331-6

Claus Wisse and Philipp Colin, Parzifal (G p), expansion of Wolfram von Eschenbach

c.1340

alliterative Joseph of Arimathie (p), only fragments remain
Moriaen (D p)

c.1350

Ywain and Gawain (p), Trans. of Chrétien's "Yvain" but very different in character from the original

c.1350-1400

Arthur (p)

c.1360

alliterative Morte Arthur (p), based loosely on Wace

c.1375-1400

Awntyrs of Arthure (p)

c.1388

Jean Froissart [c.1338-c.1410], Meliador (F p), missing conclusion, see also "Meriadoc"

c.1390

Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight (p), the masterpiece of alliterative poetry

c.1392-4

Geoffrey Chaucer, Wife of Bath's Tale (p), same story as "Wedding of Gawain" and "Marriage of Gawain"

c.1400-1500

Skikkju rímur (N p)

c.1400

stanzaic Le Morte Arthur (p)
Sir Gawain and the Carl of Carlisle (p), a common-man's viewpoint

c.1425

The Avowing of King Arthur (p), full title: ..., Sir Gawain, Sir Kay, and Baldwin of Britain

c.1430

Henry Lovelich, Holy Grail (p), trans. of Vulgate "Joseph d'Arimathie"
Henry Lovelich, Merlin (p), trans. of first half of Vulgate "Merlin"

c.1450

The Gest of Sir Gawain (p), somewhat offensive
The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell (p), see also "Marriage of Gawain" and Chaucer , all three from common source
The Marriage of Sir Gawain (p), see also "Wedding of Gawain" and Chaucer
prose Merlin (pr), straight trans. from Vulgate

1470

Malory, Morte d'Arthur (pr), this defines the Arthur we (20th cent.) know

c.1482-1500

Lancelot du Laik (Scottish p)
Golagros and Gawain (p)

c.1500

The Turk and Gawain (p), 1/2 lost (the pages were used to start fires!)
The Green Knight (p), telling (from memory) of the same story as "Sir Gawain and ...", partially lost
King Arthur's Death (p), really 2 poems joined together

c.1500-20

prose Joseph of Arimathie (pr)
King Arthur and King Cornwall (p), 1/2 lost (see "Turk" above)

c.1500-1600

The Boy and the Mantle (p), ballad

1510

Winken de Worde, Little Tretys of the Birth and Prophecies of Merlin

1553

Hans Sachs, Von der strenge lieb herr Tristrant mit der schonen konigin Isalden (G tr)

1570

Luigi Alamanni, L'Avarchide (I p)

1586

Warner, Albion's England (-c)

1587

Thomas Hughes, The Misfortunes of Arthur
1590-6 
Edmund Spenser, The Faerie Queene, a masterpiece

1597

Christopher Middleton, History of Chinon of England

1601

Robert Chester, Love's Martyr

1603

Thomas Deloney, Sir Lancelot du Lake

1610

Richard Johnson, Romance of Tom a Lincolne
Robert Nicols, Winter Nights Vision

1612

Michael Drayton, Poly-Olbion (-c)

c.1615

Michael Drayton [England, 1563-1631], Nimphadia, the Court of Fayrie

1621

History of Tom Thumb, the Little, not sure if this is Arthurian

1630

Tom Thumb, His Life and Death, Tom is Arthur's dwarf

1660

Martin Parker, The Most Famous History of That Most Renowned Christian Worthy Arthur King of the Britaines, and His Famous Knights of the Round Table

1662

William Rowley, The Birth of Merlin, burlesque play, actually written much earlier

1687

>John Dryden, Albion and Albanicus (opera)

1691

John Dryden, King Arthur, or the British Worthy (opera)

1695

Richard Blackmore, Prince Arthur

1697

Richard Blackmore, King Arthur

1730

Henry Fielding, The Tragedy of Tragedies, parodistic burlesque play, with Tom Thumb and Arthur

1731

Merlin, or, The British Enchanters

1734

Merlin, or, The Devil of Stonehenge
c.1735 
Aaron Hill, Merlin in Love: or, Youth Against Magic

1735

Edward Phillips, The Royal Chace (play)
Edmund Curll, Merlin, and the Royal Hermitage

1736

Edmund Curll, The Rarities of Richmond

1759

William Hilton, Arthur, Monarch of the Britons, A Tragedy

1771

Christoph Wieland, Sommermarchen (G p)

1775-80

Comte de la Vergue de Tressan, Extraits de romans de chevalerie (F p)

1777

Thomas Warton, Grave of King Arthur

1778

Christoph Wieland, Geron der Adelige (G p)

1789

Richard Hole, Arthur: or, The Northern Enchantment

1801

Johj Thelwall, The Fairy of the Lake

1804

Sir Walter Scott, Sir Tristrem

1809

Sir Walter Scott, The Bridal of Triermain

1812

Baron Creuzé de Lesser, Les Chevaliers de la Table Ronde (F p)

c.1818

John Hookham Frere, The Monks and the Giants, unfinished

1820

William Wordsworth, Artegal and Elidure

1822

William Wordsworth, Ecclesiastical Sonnets, many of them are Arthurian, but not all

1829

Thomas Love Peacock, Misfortunes of Elphin

1830

William Wordsworth, The Egyptian Maid

1832

Alfred Lord Tennyson, The Lady of Shalott
Karl Immermann, Merlin (G pr)

1841

Reginald Heber, Morte Arthure, unfinished

1842

Alfred Lord Tennyson, Sir Launcelot and Queen Guinevere
Alfred Lord Tennyson, Sir Galahad
Alfred Lord Tennyson, Morte d'Arthur

1848

Lord Lytton, King Arthur

1852

Matthew Arnold, Tristram and Iseult

1856

F. Roeber, Tristran und Isolde (G p)

1858

William Morris, The Defence of Guinevere and other poems

1859

Alfred Lord Tennyson, Idylls of the King I
Edgar Quinet, Merlin l'Enchanteur (F pr)
Richard Wagner, Tristan und Isolde (G opera)

1860

Wilhelm Hertz, Lanzelot und Genevra (G p)

1863

R.S. Hawker, Quest of the Sangreal

1865

L. Schneegans, Tristan (G p)

1868

Adam Lindsay Gordon, Rhyme of Joyous Garde

1869

G.A. Simcox, Farewell of Ganore
G.A. Simcox, Gawain and the Lady of Avalon
Alfred Lord Tennyson, Idylls of the King II, version on this website closest to

1870

F. Millard, Tristram and Iseult

1880

J.R Lowell, Sir Launfal

1882

Richard Wagner, Parsifal (G opera)
Algernon Swinburne, Tristram of Lyonesse

1885

Alfred Lord Tennyson, Idylls of the King III

1889

Alfred Lord Tennyson, Merlin and the Gleam
John Veitch, Merlin and other poems

1891>

R. Hovey, Lancelot and Guinevere

1895

J. Comyns Carr, King Arthur

1896

Algernon Swinburne, Tale of Balen

1898

J. Davidson, The Last Ballad

1900

J. Bédier, Le Roman de Tristran et Iseult (F pr)

1903

Howard Pyle, The Story of King Arthur and His Knights

1905

Howard Pyle, The Story of The Champions of the Round Table

1907

Howard Pyle, The Story of Sir Launcelot and His Companions

1910

Howard Pyle, The Story of the Grail and the Passing of Arthur

1911

Michael Field, Tragedy of Pardon
Michael Field, Tristan de Leonois

1913

Laurence Binyon, Tristram's End

1917

Arthur Symons, Tristram and Iseult

1923

Thomas Hardy, The Queen of Cornwall

1925

T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land

1927

John Masefield, Midsummer Night
John Masefield, Tristan and Isolt

1928

E.A. Robinson, Tristan

1938

Charles Williams, Taliessin through Logres

1942

Frank Martin, Le Vin Herbe (oratio; text Bédier)

1944

Charles Williams, The Region of the Summer Stars

1976

John Steinbeck, The Tales of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table

Reference Material
King Arthur, Barber, contains a list of Arthurian literature at the end, but it's not all that complete
The Flower of Kings, Merriman, post-Malory
Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, Loomis, pre-Malory
The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles,Fletcher
"The Arthurian Legends: Modern Retellings of the Old Stories: An Annotated Bibliography" in the Journal of English and Germanic Philogy vol.43 (173-221) and 49 (213-16) contains a list (with a few little notes) of all Arthurian literature (mostly original fiction) written from 1800-1944

Notes
A number of the early British and Latin sources are not included.
Tristan was originally a separate, independent tale. It was absorbed (or merged) into the Arthur cycle early on, and so all Tristan works are considered Arthurian.
There are many chronicles here, and they are (probably) of little interest, except for Geoffrey, Wace, and Lawman. They are flagged with a -c in the key. The less artistic ones are lumped together in a separate list at the end.
Norse = Swedish = Icelandic

Keys
Most titles are followed by a key indicating the original language and style, with the form "(L s)". If the language is not specified, it is English. A "-c" is appended to the style to indicate a chronicle.
Languages
B - Britsh
D - Dutch
F - French
G - German
I - Italian
L - Latin
N - Norse
Styles
d - drama
p - poetry
pr - prose
tr - tragedy

Notes on Authors
Geoffrey of Monmouth [England, c.1100-1155]
Master Wace [France, 12th cent.], his name might be Robert
Layamon [England, 12-13th cent.], the name is in non-Latin characters, and is also written as Lazamon and Lawman the correct pronunciation is something very close to Lawman
Marie de France [France, England, 12th cent.], she moved to England, possibly as a wife (she may have been a Norman noble) or as an attendent thereof (there is another famous contemporary aristocratic Marie, and the two may be the same) she probably knew Chrétien de Troyes
Chrétien de Troyes [France, 12th cent.] wrote the stories that everybody else re-wrote
Hartmann von Aue [Germany, 12th cent.]
Wolfram von Eschenbach [Germany, c.1165-c.1225]
Gottfried von Strassburg [Germany, 12th cent.]
Robert de Boron [France, 13th cent.] also spelled Borron (both ways by Robert) not a good writer, but he early on accumulated vast potions of the cycle and his work was the basis of many other works
Thomas Malory [England, c.1410-c.1471], landmark English text, closed the issue of Arthur until the 19th century. He was considered a rogue, and spent large amounts of time in prison where he is thought to have written Morte d'Arthur. First sent to jail for raping a tenant (he was a noble), following a long history of rowdiness, and later he was back in jail for leading an outlaw pack (robbers) after having escaped while serving for the rape. Describes himself as a knight.

The Chronicles
1307 chronicle (F p-c) Peter Langtoft
1325~ chronicle (p-c) Thomas Castelford
1328 Story of England (p-c) Robert Mannyng of Brunne
1385 Chronica Gentis Scotorum (L pr-c) Fordun
1420 The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland (p-c) Wyntoun
1430 chronicle (pr-c) Capgrave
1436 chronicle (p-c) Hardyng
1482 Polychronicon (pr-c) Ralph Higden
1511 New Chronicles of England and France (pr-c) Robert Fabyan
1521 History of Great Britain (L-c) Mair
1527 Scotorum Historia (L-c) Boece
1534 Anglicae Historiae (xxxiv) (L-c) Polydore Vergil
1562 Abridgement of chronicles of England (pr-c) Grafton
1565 Abridgement of English Chronicles (pr-c) Stow
1577 Chronicle (pr-c) Raphael Holinshed
1580 Chronicles of England (pr-c) John Stow