Arderydd (Arthuret)

   The scene of a sectarian battle fought about the year 573CE in which the forces of Gwenddolau were overwhelmed by either the army of the Clyde or Coeling forces from York (Eboracum). The location is generally thought to be just north of Carlisle at the remains of a small hillfort near Carwinley and Netherby along the river Esk. The Scottish Merlin, Myrddin, is said to have taken part in the battle and to have lost his sanity when Gwenddolau perished. The opponent of Gwenddolau has been proposed as the army of Rhydderch Hael who ruled from Areclut (Dumbarton) or that of Peredur Steel Arm, the Parsifal of the grail legends, who ruled from Eboracum. The Clyde proponents point out that the Clyde kingdom eventually controlled the area expanding their domain to become Strathclyde and that one of the poems attributed to Myrddin indicates that Myrddin was trying to evade the warriors and priests of Rhydderch. The Coeling side points out that the Clyde kingdom did not dominate the area until several years later and that Peredur and Gwrgi were expanding their control, attempting to dominate the Pennines. Peredur and Gwrgi perished around 580, leaving a power vacuum that the Clyde took advantage of. Some of the assumptions about the cause of the battle concern religion, in that Gwenddolau's was one of the last major pagan courts and that the opposing force had the support of the Celtic church.
   In my own Dragon Skies series, I have chosen to make the opposing force the armies of Peredur.