The Alano-Sarmatian Hypothesis

   The core of Alano-Sarmatian Hypothesis of Littleton and Malcor is that Sarmatian soldiers who fought under Lucius Artorius Castus (LAC) in Britain before the year 200 remained there with their families, intermarried, and eventually became part of British society; and that these soldiers kept alive part of their heritage in their traditional stories based in their mythology and in their stories of their life in Britain, making LAC the hero, intermingling the analogues of sacred swords and chalices, inhabited lakes, and war games with their own. The fact that some of the Sarmatian elements, such as swords in lakes and magic vessels, had Celtic analogues would have reinforced these elements and helped them survive.
   These northern stories and legends about Arthur (LAC) would have mixed and mingled with similar stories which had been developing in France under Alan influence in the period following the Norman conquest. Thus Geoffrey of Monmouth, writing around 1136, provides a justification for the Norman kingship by creating a British king, molded from the legends of Arthur - LAC the ancient Roman war leader and the great British king(s) of the 5th and early 6th century that held back the darkness after the Roman departure with those of Riothamus the British king with continental ambitions. The continental campaigns and defeats of Maxen Wledig and 'Riothamus' along with the upheavals of the time created a Lesser Britain. Thus, we can imagine the Norman kings as the return of Arthur from his long sleep.
   Geoffrey would probably have known the stories about Arthur and Excalibur and Avalon, but it would take Chrétien and his continental stories of Lancelot, Yvain, and the Grail to begin the emergence of the Arthur of legend with his sword Excalibur (which has two different origin stories) and the knights of the Round Table. Whether the stories of LAC aka Arthur were the core of the legend upon which all other accreted or only one aspect of the story will continue to be a subject of debate.
   As Dr Malcor herself points out: "When you look for the historical catalyst for a cycle of legend, you look for the 'earliest' figure whose biography (1) parallels a significant number of details in the legends, (2) who lived at a time when the folklore with which the history combines to produce the legend is present and, preferably, popular, and (3) who did something significant at the right place at the right time to cause the storytellers to combine the history with the folklore. After that point, other figures can contribute to the tale, other stories can be attracted to the corpus, but anyone who lives later cannot be the original. If such a complex existed prior to the date of the figure you are considering, you need to prove that the prior figure did not generate the cycle. I have not seen you (any supporters of later Arthurian prototypes) do that with Lucius Artorius Castus. In addition to the correct name, troops, dragon-standard, battle pattern, rank (dux), double Continental invasion pattern, Civil War, involvement with people known to carry the pre-Arthurian Sword in the Stone story and the pre-Arthurian Grail tradition and the pre-Arthurian Queen of the Sea/Lady of the Lake, and several other parallels that I've pointed out, Castus also has the chronological advantage on (Cerdic or fill in the blank) by several centuries." I do believe that supporters of later prototypes have not sufficiently dealt with her statement here. It is insufficient to claim that he was not the original prototype, even if he wasn't the most prominent event wise, merely by claiming he was too early.

Nart Saga Parallels to Arthur

The death of Batraz includes his warrior-companions being told to throw his sword into the Black Sea three times, failing to do it twice while telling their leader that they had carried out his wishes, and finally complying with the leader's wishes, whereupon a prodigious event occurs and the leader is allowed to die.

From Scythia to Camelot: A Radical Reassessment of the Legends of King Arthur, the Knights of the Round Table, and the Holy Grail, C. Scott Littleton, Linda A. Malcor, Garland Pub, April 1994, ISBN: 0815314965 Hardcover

From Scythia to Camelot, Paperback