Arthurian Name Dictionary

Sources

This table cross-references the source codes at the end of each entry with the Arthurian source in which the character, place, object, symbol, or theme appears. The “text” column is a bibliographical annotation of the specific primary text from which I drew information about the Arthurian source. In as many cases as possible, I used a English translation or critical edition of the original source; however, lack of availability of many Arthurian sources (in either critical edition or translation) forced me to use reviews, summaries, and other secondary sources for a number of romances. The annotation “general” in the “text” column indicates that I could find no text that covered the source in adequate detail, and that information in the entries relating to this source comes from general Arthurian references, listed under “general reference” in the Bibliography.

Where no author is given, he or she is anonymous.

Source Code

Author & Title

Date, Form, & Language

Description

Keywords

Text

 

 

 

 

 

 

AlamAvar

Luigi Alamanni

Avarchide

1548

Italian verse

Arthur and his soldiers besiege Avaricum in Gaul. Modeled on the Trojan War in Greek mythology.

Avaricum

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930

AlamGyr

Luigi Alamanni

Gyron le Courtois (“Guiron the Courteous”)

1548

Italian verse

The adventures of Guiron, based ultimately on the French Palamedes

Guiron

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930

Allit

Alliterative Morte Arthure (Death of Arthur)

c. 1400

English verse

Arthur’s Roman War and death

Arthur

Lucius

Mordred

Rome

Benson, Larry D., ed. King Arthur’s Death. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994.

Andreas

Andreas Capellanus (Andreas the Chaplain)

De Amore (“Of Love”)

c. 1185

Latin prose

Treatise on courtly love includes an episode in which a knight wins a hawk at Arthur’s court

Bruto

King of Love

Andreas Capellanus. The Art of Courtly Love, ed. and trans. John Jay Parry. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1941.

Anglo

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

9th c.

English chronicle

Chronicle of Saxon events in England includes references to some Arthurian characters

Cerdic

Hengist

Natanleod

Vortigern

Whitelock, Dorothy, ed. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1961.

Annales

Annales Cambriae (“Annals of Wales”)

c. 960–980

Latin chronicle

Simple list of dates and events, includes several Arthurian references. First mention of Mordred and Camlann

Arthur

Badon

Camlann

Mordred

Morris, John, ed. British History and the Welsh Annals. London: Phillimore, 1980.

Antelan

Antelan

late 13th c. or early 14th c.

German verse

Dwarf King Antelan of Scotland visits Arthur’s court, defeats Arthur’s knights, departs

Antelan

General

Arthour

Arthour and Merlin

late 13th c.

English verse

English adaptation of Vulgate Merlin, used by Malory

Arthur,

Lady of the Lake

Merlin

Rockingham

Macrae-Gibson, O. D., ed. Of Arthour and Merlin, 2 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979.

Arthur

Arthur

c. 1428

English verse chronicle

Short chronicle of Arthur’s life based on Wace

Arthur

Glastonbury

Furnivall, Frederick. Arthur: a Short Sketch of His Life and History in English Verse. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1864.

Arthur&G

Arthur and Gorlagon

early 14th c.

Latin prose

Arthur meets King Gorlagon, learns his story

Gorlagon

General

Arthur&K

Arthur and Kaletvwlch

14th c.

Welsh prose

Short tale of Arthur’s youth, draws sword Caledfwlch from the stone

Caledfwlch

General

Atre

L’Atre Perilleux (“The Perilous Cemetery”)

mid-13th c.

French verse

Gawain goes on quest to rescue Arthur’s abducted cupbearer, braves Perilous Cemetery

Escanor

Perilous Cemetery

Woledge, Brian, ed. L’Atre périlleux. Paris: Champion, 1936.

Ausgleich

“Die Ausgleichung” (“The Adjustment”)

1806

German ballad

Chastity test involving both a horn and a mantle. Arthur and Guinevere fail.

Chastity Tests

General

Avowing

The Avowing of King Arthur, Sir Gawain, Sir Kay, and Baldwin of Britain

late 13th c. or early 14thc.

English verse

During an adventure in Inglewood Forest, all title characters swear various vows, Baldwin emerges honorably

Baldwin

Inglewood

Menealf

Hahn, Thomas, ed. The Avowing of Arthur. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995

Awntyrs

The Awntyrs off Arthure at the Terne Wathelyn (“The Adventures of Arthur at Lake Wadling”)

late 14th c.

English verse

Gawain & Guinevere encountered the ghost of Guinevere’s mother; Gawain battles Galleron of Galloway

Galleron

Wadling

Hahn, Thomas, ed. The Awntyrs off Arthur. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995

Bataille

La Bataille de Loquifer (“The Battle with Loquifer”)

c. 1230

French verse

French hero named Renouart battles a giant, visits Morgan le Fay in the Island of Avalon

Renouart

Barnett, Monica, ed. La Bataille Loquifer. Oxford: Blackwell, 1975.

Bede

Bede

Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum (“The Ecclesiastical History of the English People”)

731

Latin chronicle

History of Britain drawn partially from Gildas, no mention of Arthur, but includes “Arthurian” characters and places

Ambrosius

Badon

Vortigern

Bede. The Ecclesiastical History of the English People, ed. Judith McClure and Roger Collins. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Bek

Thomas Bek of Castleford

Thomas Castleford’s Chronicle

1327

English chronicle

Chronicle of British events drawn partially from Geoffrey of Monmouth

Arthur

Castleford, Thomas. Thomas Castleford’s Chronicle, ed. Frank Behre. Elanders: Göteborg, 1940.

Beroul

Béroul

Tristan

late 12th c.

French verse

Earliest “common” or “primitive” Tristan legend. Exists only in a Fragment

Isolde

Mal Pas

Mark

Tristan

Béroul. Tristan, ed. Norris J. Lacy. In The Romance of Arthur: an anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland, 1994.

Biket

Robert Biket

Lai du Cor “Lay of the Horn”

mid to late 12th c.

French verse

Chastity test at Arthur’s court involving a horn, only Caradoc has a faithful wife

Caradoc

Chastity Tests

Biket, Robert. The Lay of the Horn. In Arthur, King of Britain, ed. Richard L. Brengle. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.

Birth

Attributed to William Shakespeare and William Rowley

The Birth of Merlin, or The Childe Hath Found His Father

1662

English play

Ambrosius and Uther deal with the Saxons while Merlin’s mother tries to locate the child’s father

Ambrosius

Artesia

Clown

Joan Go-too’t

Ostorius

Rowley, William, and William Shakespeare (attributed). The Birth of Merlin. In The Shakespeare Apocrypha, ed. C. F. Tucker Brooke. Oxford: Clarendon, 1967.

BlackmoreK

Sir Richard Blackmore

King Arthur: An Heroick Poem: In Twleve Books

1697

English verse

Arthur intervenes in French affairs, slays evil king

Clotar

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

BlackmoreP

Sir Richard Blackmore

Prince Arthur: An Heroick Poem: in Ten Books

1695

English verse

A young Arthur tries to reclaim the crown of Britain from the Saxons

Ethelina

Tollo

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

Bliocadran

Bliocadran Prologue

early 13th c.

French verse

Prologue to Chrétien’s Perceval. Perceval’s father, Bliocadran, quests and dies

Bliocadran

Wolfgang, Lenora D., ed. Bliocadran: a Prologue to the Perceval of Chrétien de Troyes. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1976.

Boccaccio

Giovanni Boccaccio

De Casibus Virorum Illustrium (“The Fates of Illustrious Men”)

1355–62

Italian chronicle

Arthur’s life and death, drawn from Geoffrey of Monmouth

Arthur

Round Table

Boccaccio, Giovanni. The Fates of Illustrious Men, ed. and trans. Louis B. Hall. New York: Frederick Ungar, 1965.

Boece

Hector Boece

Scotorum Historiae

1527

Latin chronicle

Chronicle of British history written by a Scottish partisan, portrays Arthur negatively, glorifies Mordred

Arthur

Lot

Mordred

Picts

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Boy

“The Boy and the Mantle”

16th c.

English ballad

Chastity test at Arthur’s court involving a mantle

Caradoc

Chastity Tests

Percy, Thomas, ed. “The Boy and the Mantle.” In Relique of Ancient English Poetry. London: Dent, 1938.

Buchanan

George Buchanan

Rerum Scoticarum Historia

1582

Latin chronicle

Scottish version of Arthur’s life based on Boece, portrays Arthur very negatively

Arthur

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Butor

Baudin Butor

Unknown

c. 1290

French prose

The pre-Arthurian period, including Vortigern and Pendragon

Ivoire

Libanor

Pendragon

Uther

Thorpe, Lewis. “The Four Rough Drafts of Bauduins Butors.” Nottingham Medieval Studies, 12 (1968), 3–20; 13 (1969), 49–64; 14 (1970), 41–63.

Camden

William Camden

Britannia

1586

Latin prose

Survey of British geography, includes many Arthurian locales, identifies Cadbury with Camelot

Cadbury

Camden, William. Britannia: or, a Chorographical Description of the Flourishing Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Islands Adjacent, from the Earliest Antiquity, trans. Richard Gough. London: John Nichols, 1789.

Cantare

Anonymous, possibly Antonio Pucci

Cantare dei Cantari (“Song of Songs”)

c. 1380

Italian verse

Stories of Arthurian and Carolinian figures

New Table

Old Table

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

CantariC

I Cantari di Carduino (“The Song of Carduino”)

c. 1370

Italian verse

The adventures of Carduino, son of Dodinel

Carduino

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

CantariT

I Cantari di Tristano (“The Song of Tristan”)

mid to late 14th c.

Italian verse

A group of texts relating Tristan’s adventures; material found in the French Prose Tristan and the Italian La Tavola Ritonda

Merlin’s Stones

Palamedes

Tristan

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Caradoc

Caradoc of Llancarfan

Vita Gildae (“Life of St. Gildas”)

c. 1130

Latin hagiography

Biography of St. Gildas, includes his experiences with Arthur and Guinevere’s kidnapping by Melwas

Gildas

Glastonbury

Hueil

Melwas

Bruce, James Douglas. The Evolution of Arthurian Romance from the Beginnings Down to the Year 1300, vol. 1. Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1958.

Carle

The Carle off Carlisle (“The Churl of Carlisle”)

early 16th c.

English ballad

Gawain’s episode with the Carl of Carlisle, adapted from Syre Gawene and the Carl of Carlyle.

Beheading Game

Carl of Carlisle

Hahn, Thomas, ed., The Carle of Carlisle. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Chantari

Li Chantari di Lancelotto (“The Song of Lancelot”)

late 14th c.

Italian verse

The destruction of Camelot and the Round Table

Escalot

Mordred

Winchester

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer

The Wife of Bath’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales

1387

English verse

A knight must learn what women most desire; marries the loathly lady

Loathly Lady

Chaucer, Geoffrey. The Canterbury Tales: a Selection, ed. Donald R. Howard. New York: Penguin, 1969.

ChestreLvl

Thomas Chestre

Sir Launfal

late 14th c.

English verse

The adventures of Sir Launfal, adapted ultimately from Marie de France’s Lanval

Lanval

Chestre, Thomas. Sir Launfal. In Middle English Romances, ed. Stephen A. Sheperd. New York: Norton, 1995.

ChestreLyb

Thomas Chestre

Lybeaus Desconus (“The Fair Unknown”)

late 14th c.

English verse

The adventures of Gawain’s son, Guinglain, adapted from Renaut de Bâgé’s Le Bel Inconnu

Fair Unknown

Guinglain

Snowdon

Chestre, Thomas. Lybeaus Desconus, ed. M. Mills. London: Oxford University Press, 1969.

ChevEpee

Anonymous, possibly Paien de Maisières

Le Chevalier à L’Épée (“The Knight with the Sword”)

late 12th c.

French verse

Parody of Gawain adventures.

Ydain

Brewer, Elizabeth, ed. and trans. The Knight of the Sword. In From Cuchulainn to Gawain. Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1973.

ChevPap

Le Chevalier du Papegau (“The Knight of the Parrot”)

late 14th c. or early 15th c.

French prose

A young Arthur goes on adventures, earns the title nickname

Fish-Knight

Knight of the Parrot

Lady of the Blonde Hair

Vesce, Thomas E., trans. The Knight of the Parrot. New York: Garland, 1986

ChretienC

Chrétien de Troyes

Cligés

late 12th c.

French verse

Cligés and his father Alexander, heirs to the empire of Constantinople, have adventures at Arthur’s court and at home.

Alexander

Alis

Cliges

Fenice

Chrétien de Troyes. Cligés. In The Complete Romances of Chrétien de Troyes, ed. and trans. David Staines. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.

ChretienE

Chrétien de Troyes

Erec

late 12th c.

French verse

Erec marries Enide, drags her on a series of adventures

Enice

Erec

Joy of the Court

Chrétien de Troyes. Erec. In The Complete Romances of Chrétien de Troyes, ed. and trans. David Staines. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.

 

ChretienL

Chrétien de Troyes

Lancelot, or Le Chevalier de la Charrete (“The Knight of the Cart”)

late 12th c.

French verse

Guinevere is kidnapped by Meleagant, Lancelot rescues her and begins an affair with her

Gorre

Guinevere

Lancelot

Meleagant

Chrétien de Troyes. The Knight of the Cart. In The Complete Romances of Chrétien de Troyes, ed. and trans. David Staines. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.

ChretienP

Chrétien de Troyes

Perceval, or Le Conte del Graal (“The Story of the Grail”)

late 12th c.

French verse

The adventures of the young Perceval, including his visit to the Grail Castle. First appearance of the Grail. Unfinished. Inspired many continuations and adaptations

Blancheflor

Bleeding Lance

Fisher King

Maimed King

Grail

Grail Sword

Perceval

Chrétien de Troyes. The Story of the Grail. In The Complete Romances of Chrétien de Troyes, ed. and trans. David Staines. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.

ChretienY

Chrétien de Troyes

Yvain, or Le Chevalier au Lion (“The Knight with the Lion”)

late 12th c.

French verse

Yvain slays the Lord of the Fountain, marries his widow, has a series of adventures with a lion

Esclados

Knight with the Lion

Laudine

Yvain

Chrétien de Troyes. The Knight with the Lion. In The Complete Romances of Chrétien de Troyes, ed. and trans. David Staines. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1990.

ChroniconL

Chronicon de Lanercost (“Lanercost Chronicle”)

14th c.

Latin chronicle

In 1216, Arthur visits and dines with the Bishop of Winchester

Peter of the Rocks

General

ChroniconM

Chronicon Montis Sancti Michaelis in Periculo Maris (“Chronicle of St. Michael’s Mount”)

early 12th c.

Breton chronicle

A note that Arthur was king of Britain in 421

Arthur

General

Claris

Claries et Laris (“Claris and Laris”)

1268

French verse

The adventures and loves of two friends, Claris and Laris

Claris

Laris

General

Conti

Conti di Antichi Cavalier (“Tales of the Knights of Old”)

13th c.

Italian prose

One of 20 stories describes the parents of Galehaut and the Castle of Tears

Brunor

Castle of Tears

Galehaut

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Contin1

Attributed to Wauchier of Denain

First Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval

c. 1200

French verse

Continuation of Perceval describes adventures of Gawain and Caradoc

Brandelis

Brun of Branlant

Caradoc

Gawain

Grail

Guiromelant

Orguellos

Roach, William, ed. The Continuations of the Old French “Perceval” of Chrétien de Troyes, vols. 1–3. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949–83.

Contin2

Attributed to Gauchier of Donaing

Second Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval

c. 1200

French verse

Perceval gets tangled in a quest for a white stag’s head while trying to return to the Fisher King’s castle

Chessboard Castle

Grail

Knight of the Tomb

Little Knight

Perceval

Roach, William, ed. The Continuations of the Old French “Perceval” of Chrétien de Troyes, vol. 4. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949–83.

Contin3

Manessier

Third Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval

c. 1230

French verse

Perceval finally returns to the Grail Castle, is crowned Grail King

Black Hand

Bleeding Lance

Grail

Perceval

Roach, William, ed. The Continuations of the Old French “Perceval” of Chrétien de Troyes, vol. 5. Philadephia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1949–83.

 

 

Contin4

Gerbert de Montreuil

Fourth Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval

c. 1230

French verse

Perceval returns to the Grail Castle and mends the Grail sword

Grail

Grail Sword

Perceval

Gerbert de Montreuil. La Continuation de Perceval, ed. Mary Williams. 2 vols. Paris: Champion, 1922–5.

Culhwch

Culhwch and Olwen

late 11th c.

Welsh prose

Culhwch wants to marry Olwen, seeks Arthur’s help to complete tasks necessary to do so. Includes list of some 250 Arthurian warriors.

Cauldron

Culhwch

Olwen

Twrch Trwyth

Ysbadadden

Ganz, Jeffrey, ed. and trans. How Culhwch Won Olwen. In The Mabinogion. New York: Penguin, 1976.

DeOrtu

De Ortu Waluuanii Nepotis Arturi (“Of the Rise of Gawain, Nephew of Arthur”)

late 13th c.

Latin prose

The enfances of Gawain, his adventures in Rome, and early exploits at Arthur’s court.

Anna

Castle of Maidens

Gawain

Gormundus

Milocrates

Day, Mildred Leake, ed. The Rise of Gawain, Nephew of Arthur. In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland, 1994.

DeSancto

De Sancto Joseph ab Arimathia (“Of St. Joseph of Arimathea”)

1516

Latin prose

The life of Joseph of Arimathea

Glastonbury

Joseph of Arimathea

Skeat, Walter W., ed. Joseph of Arimathie. London: Trübner, 1871.

Dialog

An Dialog Etre Arzur Roe d’an Bretounet ha Guynglaff (“A Dialogue Between Arthur and Guynglaff”)

late 16th c. or early 17th. c.

Breton prose

Fragment of a meeting between Arthur and Guynglaff, who spouts Merlinesque prophecies

Guynglaff

Lacy, Norris J. and Geoffrey Ashe. The Arthurian Handbook. New York: Garland, 1988.

Dialogue

“Dialogue of Arthur and Gwenhwyfar”

16th c.

Welsh verse

Conversation involving Guinevere, Melwas, and Kay

Melwas

General

Didot

Didot-Perceval

c. 1220–30

French prose

Adventures of Perceval as he becomes the Grail King, includes a section on the death of Arthur. Based partially on second continuation

Chessboard Castle

Grail

Perceval

Perilous Seat

Roach, William, ed. The Didot-Perceval. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1941.

DisIst

Dis Ist Frauw Tristerat Horn von Saphoien (“This is Lady Tristerat of Savoy’s Horn”)

15th c.

German verse

Lady Tristerat of Savoy sends a magical chastity horn to Arthur’s court.

Chastity Tests

Tristerat

General

Drayton

Michael Drayton

Poly-Olbion

1612

English verse

The Geography of Britain, including a number of Arthurian locales

Camelot

Camlann

Drayton, Michael. Poly-Olbion, vol. 4, ed. J. William Hebel. Oxford: Shakespeare Head Press, 1961.

Dream

Breudwyt Rhonabwy (The Dream of Rhonabwy)

13th c.

Welsh prose

A twelfth-century warrior falls asleep, dreams about meeting Arthur before the battle of Badon

Badon

Osla

Rhonabwy

Yvain

Gantz, Jeffrey. The Dream of Rhonabwy. In The Mabinogion. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Dryden

John Dryden

King Arthur; or, the British Worthy

1691

English opera

Arthur battles the Saxon Oswald, marries Emmeline

Emmeline

Philadel

Oswald

Dryden, John. King Arthur; or, the British Worthy, a Dramatic Opera. In The Works of John Dryden, ed. Sir Walter Scott. Edinburgh: T. & A. Constable, 1884.

DueTris

I Due Tristani (“The Two Tristans”)

1555

Italian prose

The story of Tristan and Isolde and their children, also called Tristan and Isolde

Infanta Maria

Isolde

Juan

Tristan

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Durmart

Durmart le Gallois

early 13th c.

French verse

The adventures of Durmart, who woos and wins Queen Fenise of Ireland

Dumart

Fenise

Nogant

Gildea, Joseph, ed. Durmart le Gallois. 2 vols. Villanova, PA: Villanova University Press, 1965–6.

Edolanz

Edolanz

mid-13th c.

German verse

Fragment of the adventures of Edolanz, who rescues Gawain and wins a sparrowhawk tournament

Edolanz

General

Eilhart

Eilhart von Oberge

Tristrant

1170–90

German verse

“Primitive” or “Common” version of the Tristan legend.

Isolde

Isolde of the White Hands

Mark

Rivalin
Tristan

Eilhart von Oberge. Tristrant, trans. J. W. Thomas. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1978.

Elucid

The Elucidation

13th c.

French verse

Prologue to Chrétien’s Perceval.

Amangon

Thompson, Albert Wilder, ed. The Elucidation: a Prologue to the Conte del Graal. New York: Institute of French Studies, 1931.

Enfances

Les Enfances Gauvain (“The Youth of Gawain”)

early 13th c.

French verse

Gawain’s infancy and youth, including his trip to Rome

Gawain

Gawain the Brown

Morcades

Micha, Alexandre. “Miscellaneous French Romances in Verse.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Erex

Erex Saga (“Saga of Erec”)

13th c.

Icelandic prose

Adaptation of Chrétien’s Erec relating the tale of Erec and Enide

Erec

Enide

Blaisdell, Foster W. and Marianne E. Kalinke, trans. Erex Saga and Ívens Saga: The Old Norse Versions of Chrétien de Troyes’s Erec and Yvain. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.

Etienne

Étienne de Rouen

Draco Normannicus (“The Norman Dragon”)

c. 1169

Latin chronicle

Arthur and King Henry II exchange letters over the proper rulership of Brittany

Henry II

Rollandus

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Febusso

Febusso e Breusso (“Febus and Breus”)

c. 1325–35

Italian verse

Sir Breus the Pitiless stumbles into the cavern tomb of Febus. Based on an episode in Palamedes.

Breus

Febus

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Ferguut

Ferguut

mid to late 13th c.

Dutch verse

Adventures of Fergus, adapted from Guillaume le Clerc’s Fergus

Fergus

Sparnaay, Hendricus. “The Dutch Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Fielding

Henry Fielding

Tom Thumb and The Tragedy of Tragedies

1730

English play

Parody of Arthuriana and tragic theater, involving the diminutive warrior Tom Thumb. Two versions.

Dollallolla

Glumdalca

Tom Thumb

Fielding, Henry. The Tragedy of Tragedies. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1918.

Floriant

Floriant et Florete (“Floriant and Florete”)

c. 1250–75

French verse

The adventures of Floriant, raised by Morgan le Fay. He weds the daughter of the Emperor of Constantinople

Filimenis

Florete

Floriant

Maragoz

Williams, Harry F., ed. Floriant et Florete. An Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1947.

 

 

FolieB

La Folie Tristan de Berne (“The Madness of Tristan”)

late 12th c.

French verse

Episode in which Tristan visits Mark’s court disguised as a fool so he can meet with Isolde

Husdent

Isolde

Perinis

Tristan

Bédier, Joseph, ed. Les Deux Poèmes de la Folie Tristan. Paris: Didot, 1907.

FolieO

La Folie Tristan d’Oxford (“The Madness of Tristan”)

12th c.

French verse

Episode in which Tristan visits Mark’s court disguised as a fool so he can meet with Isolde

Husdent

Isolde

Petitcrieu

Tristan

Bromiley, Geoffrey N. Thomas’s Tristan and the Folie Tristan d’Oxford. London: Grant & Cutler, 1986.

Froissart

Jehan Froissart

Meliador

1361–69

French verse

Arthur’s Sir Meliador wins tournaments for the hand of Lady Hermondine of Scotland

Hermondine

Meliador

Micha, Alexandre. “Miscellaneous French Romances in Verse.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Gaimar

Geoffrey Gaimar

L’Estoire des Engles (“The History of the Angles”)

c. 1140

French chronicle

The history of the Angles in Britain, contains some Arthurian allusions

Angles

Denmark

Gunter

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Gargantuan

Les Croniques Admirables du Puissant Roy Gargantua (“The Admirable Chronicles of the Powerful King Gargantua”)

c. 1534

French prose

A mythical giant named Gargantua, whose parents were created by Merlin, serves Arthur for 200 years

Gargantua

Girault, François. The Tale of Gargantua and King Arthur, ed. Huntington Brown. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1932.

GeoffHR

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Historia Regum Britanniae (“History of the Kings of Britain”)

c. 1138

Latin chronicle

First full version of Arthur’s life, his conquests, his war against Rome, his battle against Mordred’s rebellion, and his death. Probably the most important Arthurian text ever written. Mostly invented, but presented (and accepted) as history.

Ambrosius

Arthur

Camel

Constantine

Guinevere

Merlin

Mordred

Rome

Saxons

Uther Pendragon

Vortigern

Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Great Britain, trans. Sebastian Evans. New York: E. P. Dutton, 1958.

GeoffVM

Geoffrey of Monmouth

Vita Merlini (“The Life of Merlin”)

c. 1150

Latin verse

The latter days of Merlin, drawn from the Welsh tales of Myrddin.

Avalon

Ganieda

Merlin

Morgan le Fay

Rhydderch

Taliessin

Geoffrey of Monmouth. Vita Merlini, ed. and trans. Jeffrey Ganz. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Geraint

Geraint and Enid

13th c.

Welsh prose

Welsh adaptation of same material found in Chrétien’s Erec, with hero changed from Erec to Geraint

Enide

Geraint

Gantz, Jeffrey, ed. and trans. Geraint son of Erbin. In the Mabinogion. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Gesta

Gesta Regum Britanniae (“Deeds of the Kings of Britain”)

mid-13th c.

Latin

Adaptation of Geoffrey of Monmouth

Arthur

Uther

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Gildas

Gildas

De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae (“Of the Ruin and Conquest of Britain”)

c. 540

Latin chronicle

Tirade against the British kings, glorifying the old days of the Roman occupation, mentions Ambrosius, Vortigern, and Badon

Ambrosius

Badon

Vortigern

Gildas. De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae. In Six Old English Chronicles, ed. J. A. Giles. New York: AMS, 1968.

Giraldus

Giraldus Cambrensis (Gerald of Wales)

De Principis Instructione (“On the Instruction of Princes”)

c. 1193

Latin chronicle

Includes an account of the discovery of Arthur’s body at Glastonbury

Arthur

Glastonbury

Wilhelm, James J. “Arthur in the Latin Chronicles.” In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland 1994.

Girart

Girart D’Amiens

Escanor

c. 1280

French verse

Kay falls in love; Galantivet defends Gawain against a murder charge.

Andrivete

Escanor

Galantivet

Micha, Alexandre. “Miscellaneous French Romances in Verse.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Gliglois

Gliglois

early 13th c.

French verse

Gawain and his squire, Gliglois, fall in love with the same woman. She chooses Gliglois.

Beauté

Gliglois

Livingston, Charles H., ed. Gliglois: a French Arthurian Romance of the Thirteenth Century. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1932.

Godfrey

Godfrey of Viterbo

Pantheon

1169–91

Italian chronicle

Includes the story of Vortigern, Merlin, and Arthur’s conception

Merlin

Uther

Vortigern

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Gododdin

Aneirin

Y Gododdin (“The Gododdin”)

c. 600

Scottish verse

Earliest Scottish poem contains first reference to Arthur’s name, though the poem is not about him

Arthur

Aneirin. “The Gododdin.” In The Earliest Welsh Poetry, ed. Joseph P. Clancy. London: Macmillan, 1970.

Goeznovii

Legenda Sancti Goeznovii (Legend of St. Goeznovius”)

1019

Latin hagiography

One section offers a purely historical account of Arthur and Vortigern

Arthur

Vortigern

Wilhelm, James J. “Arthur in the Latin Chronicles.” In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland 1994.

Gogulor

Gogulor

13th c.

French verse

Fragment of a story in which a young knight battles a giant named Gogulor

Gogulor

General

Golagros

Golagros and Gawain

late 15th c.

Scottish verse

Arthur sees the castle of Golagros, decides to conquer Golagros, Gawain does so.

Golagros

Hahn, Thomas, ed. The Knightly Tale of Golagros and Gawain. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Gottfried

Gottfried von Strassburg

Tristan

early 13th c.

German verse

Courtly version of the story of Tristan and Isolde, based on Thomas of England’s version

Isolde

Isolde of the White Hands

Mark

Tristan

Gottfried von Strassburg. Tristan, ed. A. T. Hatto. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1970.

Grene

The Grene Knight

c. 1500

English verse

Inferior adaptation of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

Beheading Game

Bredbeddle

Green Knight

Hahn, Thomas, ed. The Grene Knight. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

 

 

 

Guillaume

Guillaume le Clerc

Fergus

1200–33

French verse

The adventures of Fergus, a Fair Unknown character who joins Arthur’s court.

Fergus

Guillaume le Clerc. The Romance of Fergus, ed. Wilson Frescoln. Philadephia: William H. Allen, 1983.

Hardyng

John Hardyng

John Hardyng’s Chronicle

1457–64

English verse

Arthur’s life as given in Geoffrey of Monmouth.

Arthur

Uther

Vortigern

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

HartmannE

Hartmann von Aue

Erec

late 12th c.

German verse

German adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes’s Erec with some modifications

Enide

Erec

Hartmann von Aue. Erec, trans. Thomas L. Keller. New York: Garland, 1987.

HartmannI

Hartmann von Aue

Iwein

late 12th c.

German verse

German adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes’s Yvain

Yvain

Hartmann von Aue. Iwein, ed. and trans. Patrick M. McConeghy. New York: Garland, 1984.

HeberMD

Reginald Heber

Morte D’Arthur (“Death of Arthur’)

1812

English prose

Glorious Arthur. Guinevere longs for her past love, Cadual. Mordred plots against Arthur.

Arthur

Cadual

Mordred

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

HeberMG

Reginald Heber

The Masque of Gwendolen

1816

English prose

Version of the Loathly Lady story

Loathly Lady

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

Heinrich

Heinrich von dem Türlin

Diu Crône (“The Crown”)

c. 1230

German verse

Epic Grail story, presents Gawain as the Grail Hero. Includes abduction of Guinevere, Chastity Tests.

Amurfina

Chastity Tests

Gasozein

Gawain

Grail

Heinrich von dem Türlin. The Crown, ed. and trans. J. W. Thomas. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.

Henry

Henry of Huntingdon

Historia Anglorum (“History of England”)

c. 1129

Latin chronicle

Chronicle of England, lists Arthur’s battles against the Saxons.

Arthur

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

HereJoA

Here Begynneth the Lyfe of Joseph of Armathia with a Praysing to Joseph

1520

English verse

Joseph, his quests, and his founding of the abbey at Glastonbury

Glastonbury

Joseph of Arimathea

Skeat, Walter W., ed. Joseph of Arimathie. London: Trübner, 1871.

Heywood

Thomas Heywood

The Life of Merlin

1641

English verse

Merlin’s life, focusing on his prophecies

Merlin

Heywood, Thomas. The Life of Merlin. In The Romance of Merlin, ed. Peter Goodrich. New York: Garland, 1990.

Hill

Aaron Hill

Merlin in Love, or: Youth Against Magic

1740–60

English opera

Merlin falls in love with Columbine. She turns him into a donkey

Columbine

Harlequin

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

 

Hilton

William Hilton

Arthur, Monarch of the Britons, a Tragedy

1759

English verse

Dramatic account of Arthur’s downfall and death

Arthur

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

Historia

Historia Meriadoci Regis Cambrie (“Story of Meriadoc, King of Wales”)

late 13th c.

Latin prose

The adventures of Meriadoc, who joins Arthur’s court and claims his heritage, the kingdom of Wales

Griffin

Gundebald

Meriadoc

Orwen

Day, Mildred Leake, ed. and trans. The Story of Meriadoc, King of Cambria. New York: Garland, 1988.

Hole

Richard Hole

Arthur, or the Northern Enchantment in Seven Books

1789

English prose

Arthur obtains the assistance of Merlin in fighting Hengist and the Saxons.

Hengist

Inogen

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

HughesT

Thomas Hughes

The Misfortunes of Arthur

1587

English play

Tragedy based on Geoffrey of Monmouth’s tale of Arthur’s downfall.

Arthur

Gorlois

Guinevere

Mordred

Hughes, Thomas. The Misfortunes of Arthur, ed. Brian J. Corrigan. New York: Garland, 1992.

Hunbaut

Hunbaut

13th c.

French verse

Gawain and Hunbaut have assorted adventures while on a mission for Arthur.

Hunbaut

King of the Isles

Winters, Margaret, ed. Hunbaut. Leiden: Brill, 1984.

Huon

Huon de Bordeaux

early 13th c.

French verse

The adventures of Huon of Bordeaux, his tutor Auberon, and their conflict with Arthur

Auberon

Huon

General

Hupsches

Ain Hupsches Vasnachtspill und Sagt von Künig Artus (“A Pleasing Shrovetide Play About King Arthur”)

15th c.

German Shrovetide play

The Queen of Zipper sends a chastity testing horn to Arthur’s court and it embarrasses all of Arthur’s noblemen.

Chastity Tests

Zipper

General

Ilas

Ilas et Solvas (“Ilas and Solvas”)

14th c.

French verse

Fragment of a tale in which Ilas and Solvas break allegiance with Arthur.

Ilas

Solvas

General

Ivens

Ivens Saga (“Saga of Yvain”)

13th c.

Norse prose

Norse adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes’s Yvain.

Yvain

Blaisdell, Foster W., ed. and Marianne E. Kalinke, trans. Erex Saga and Ívens Saga. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1977.

Jaufre

Jaufré

late 12th c. or early 13th c.

French verse

Jaufré, a knight in Arthur’s service, slays a giant named Taulat.

Brunissen

Jaufré

Taulat

Rémy, Paul. “Jaufré.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Jean

Jean D’Outremeuse

Ly Myreur des Histors (“The Mirror of Histories”)

c. 1350

French prose

Accounts of the reigns of Uther and Arthur

Caradoc

Galopes

Guinevere

Modred

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

Jeaste

The Jeaste of Sir Gawayne

late 15th c.

English verse

Gawain sleeps with a maiden in a pavilion, defeats her father and brothers.

Brandelis

Gilbert

Hahn, Thomas, ed. The Jeaste of Sir Gawain. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

JohnF

John of Fordun

Chronica Gentis Scotorum (“Chronicle of the People of Scotland”)

c. 1385

Latin chronicle

First of the Scottish chronicles to portray Mordred as the rightful heir to the British throne

Mordred

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

JohnG

John of Glastonbury

Cronica sive Antiquitates Glastoniensis Ecclesie (“Chronicle of the Antiquities of the Church of Glastonbury”)

mid-14th c.

Latin chronicle

History of the church at Glastonbury. Describes the discovery of Arthur’s body in 1190.

Glastonbury

General

Johnson

Richard Johnson

Tom a Lincolne

1599–1607

English prose

The adventures of Tom a Lincoln, Arthur’s illegitimate son.

Black Knight

Tom a Lincoln

Merriman, James Douglas. The Flower of Kings: a Study of the Arthurian Legend in England Between 1485 and 1835. Wichita: University Press of Kansas, 1973.

Joseph

Joseph of Arimathie

c. 1375

English verse

Account of Joseph of Arimathea’s travels based on the Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal

Joseph of Arimathea

Skeat, Walter W., ed. Joseph of Arimathie. London: Trübner, 1871.

KingA&C

“King Arthur and King Cornwall”

16th c.

English ballad

Arthur and his knights visit the court of King Cornwall and defeat him.

Cornwall

Hahn, Thomas, ed. “King Arthur and King Cornwall.” In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

KingAD

“King Arthur’s Death”

16th c.

English ballad

Short ballad about Arthur’s death.

Arthur

Lucan

Percy, Thomas, ed. “King Arthur’s Death.” In Relique of Ancient English Poetry. London: Dent, 1938.

KingR

“King Ryence’s Challenge”

16th c.

English ballad

King Ryence demands Arthur’s beard

Rions

Percy, Thomas, ed. “King Ryence’s Challenge.” In Relique of Ancient English Poetry. London: Dent, 1938.

Konrad

Konrad von Stoffeln

Gauriel von Muntabel

late 13th c.

German verse

Sir Gauriel must embark on a series of adventures in order to return to the graces of his fairy wife.

Gauriel

General

LancLac

Lancelot do Lac (“Lancelot of the Lake”)

1215–20

French prose

First biography of Lancelot, his youth with the Lady of the Lake, his earliest adventures at Arthur’s court. Incorporated into the Vulgate Lancelot

Ban

Claudas

Dolorous Guard

Galehaut

Lady of the Lake

Lancelot

Corley, Corin, trans. Lancelot of the Lake. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

 

 

 

 

LancLaik

Lancelot of the Laik

late 15th c.

Scottish verse

Arthur’s war with Galehaut and Lancelot’s involvement.

Galehaut

Lancelot

Lupak, Alan, ed. Lancelot of the Laik and Sir Tristrem. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994.

Lanethen

“Lanethen Mantel” (“Laneth’s Mantle”)

15th c.

German ballad

Arthur’s niece sends a chastity mantle to Arthur and embarrasses his court.

Chastity Tests

Laneth

General

Layamon

Layamon

Brut

late 12th c. to mid-13th c.

English verse

English adaptation and expansion of Wace’s Roman de Brut

Argante

Arthur

Lucius

Mordred

Round Table

Layamon. Brut, ed. Rosamund Allen. New York: St. Martin’s, 1952.

Legend

“The Legend of King Arthur”

16th c.

English ballad

Arthur reviews the triumphs and misfortunes of his life.

Arthur

Mordred

St. Bernard’s Mount

Percy, Thomas, ed. “The Legend of King Arthur.” In Relique of Ancient English Poetry. London: Dent, 1938.

Liber

Liber de Compositione Castri Ambaziae

c. 1140

Latin prose

Establishment of the house of Anjou, includes Arthur’s war against Lucius.

Billeius

Clodius

Honorius

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Livre

Le Livre d’Artus (“The Book of Arthur”)

early 13th c.

French prose

Continuation of Robert de Boron’s Merlin, including the adventures of Arthur and Gawain.

Arthur

Gawain

Greu

Pellinore

Saxons

Somer, H. Oskar, ed. The Vulgate Version of the Arthurian Romances, vol. 7. Washington: Carnegie Institution, 1908–16.

Lohengrin

Lohengrin

c. 1283–89

German verse

Adventures of Loherangrin, based on character created by Wolfram von Eschenbach.

Elsam

Loherangrin

Swan Knight

General

Lorengel

Lorengel

15th c.

German verse

Adaptation of Lohengrin

Elsam

Loherangrin

General

Lovelich

Henry Lovelich

History of the Holy Grail  and Merlin

c. 1450

English verse

English verse translation of Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal and Merlin.

Joseph of Arimathea

Merlin

Ackerman, Robert W. “English Rimed and Prose Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Luneten

Der Luneten Mantel (“Lunet’s Mantle”)

15th c.

Shrovetide play

Lunet sends a magical chastity mantle to Arthur, embarrasses the court.

Chastity Tests

General

LyfeJoA

The Lyfe of Joseph of Armathy

English prose

English prose

A version of Joseph of Arimathea’s life

Joseph of Arimathea

Mordrains

Skeat, Walter W., ed. Joseph of Arimathie. London: Trübner, 1871.

Maerlant

Jacob van Maerlant

Torec

c. 1280

Dutch verse

Sir Torec recovers a family heirloom and defeats Arthur’s knights for the love of a maiden.

Mariole

Torec

Sparnaay, Hendricus. “The Dutch Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Major

John Major

Historia Majoris Britanniae

1521

Latin chronicle

History of Britain written by a Scot, yet portraying Arthur positively

Arthur

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

 

 

 

Malory

Sir Thomas Malory

Le Morte Darthur (“The Death of Arthur”)

1469–70

English prose

The entire life of Arthur and his court, divided into several sections, including Arthur’s ascension (with the assistance of Merlin), the Roman War, the tale of Lancelot, the story of Gareth, the tale of Tristan, the Grail Quest, and Arthur’s death. One of the most influential Arthurian works. Based on the Vulgate Cycle, the Post-Vulgate Suite, the English Arthour and Merlin, the Stanzaic Le Morte Arthur and the Alliterative Morte Arthure.

Arthur

Balin

Bedivere

Elaine

Gareth

Gawain

Grail

Guinevere

Lamorat

Lancelot

Lucius

Merlin

Morgan le Fay

Palamedes

Tristan

Urry

Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte Darthur, ed. R. M. Lumiansky. New York: Macmillan, 1982.

Mannyng

Robert Mannyng of Brunne

The Story of England

1338

English chronicle

Account of Arthur’s life based on Wace.

Arthur

Mannyng, Robert. The Chronicle of Robert Manning of Brunne, ed. Frederick J. Furnivall. Lessing-Druckerei: Kraus, 1965.

MantelD

Anonymous, possible Heinrich von dem Türlin

Der Mantel (“The Mantle”)

13th c.

German verse

Chastity test involving a mantle at Arthur’s court.

Chastity Tests

General

MantelM

Le Mantel Mautaillié (“The Ill-Fitting Cloak”)

late 12th c.

French verse

A mantle brought to Arthur’s court tests the chastity of the ladies.

Chastity Tests

Bennett, Philip E., ed. Mantel et Cor: deux lais due 12e siècle. Exeter: University of Exeter, 1975.

Manuel

Manuel und Amande (“Manuel and Amande”)

late 13th c.

German verse

Fragment of the story of Manuel of Greece, who marries Amande

Amande

Manuel

General

MarieC

Marie de France

Chevrefueil (“The Honeysuckle”)

mid to late 12th c.

French verse

Tristan and Isolde enjoy a passionate tryst in the forest during Tristan’s exile from Mark’s court.

Isolde

Tristan

Marie de France. The Honeysuckle. In Lays, trans. Eugene Mason. London: Dent, 1911.

MarieL

Marie de France

Lanval

mid to late 12th c.

French verse

The earliest existing tale of Sir Lanval, and Arthurian knight who falls in love with a fairy.

Lanval

Marie de France. Lanval. In Lays, trans. Eugene Mason. London: Dent, 1911.

Marriage

“The Marriage of Sir Gawain”

15th c.

English ballad

Gawain marries the Loathly Lady to find out what women most desire.

Loathly Lady

Shepard, Stephen H. A., ed. “The Marriage of Sir Gawaine.” In Middle English Romances. New York: Norton, 1995.

Melekh

Melekh Artus (“King Arthur”)

1279

Hebrew prose

Two sections from the Vulgate: Uther’s seduction of Igerne, and Arthur’s death.

Lanval

Lancelot

Uther

Leviant, Curt, ed. and trans. King Artus: a Hebrew Arthurian Romance of 1279. New York: KTAV, 1979.

Melion

Melino

c. 1200

French verse

Sir Melion is a werewolf.

Melion

General

Meriadeuc

Meriadeuc or Le Chevalier aux Deux Épées (“The Knight of the Two Swords”)

c. 1225–50

French verse

The adventures of Meriadeuc, called the Knight with the Two Swords, as contrasted with those of Gawain.

Lore

Meriadeuc

Ris

Waste Chapel

Arthur, Ross G. and Noel L. Corbett, trans. The Knight of the Two Swords. Gainsville: University Press of Florida, 1996.

 

Merveil

Jehan

Les Merveilles de Rigomer (“The Marvels of Rigomer”)

mid to late 13th c.

French verse

Arthur’s knights set out to conquer Rigomer Castle in Ireland. Gawain succeeds.

Dionise

Quintefuele

Rigomer

Jehan. The Marvels of Rigomer, trans. Thomas E. Vesce. New York: Garland, 1988.

Modena

N/A

The Modena Archivolt

1120–40

Italian sculpture

Sculpture on cathedral in Modena, Italy, depicts Arthur’s knights rescuing Winlogee (Guinevere?)  from Mardoc and Carrado

Caradoc

Mardoc

Winlogee

Yder

Loomis, Roger S. Arthurian Legends in Medieval Art. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 1966.

Moriaen

Moriaen

mid to late 13th c.

Dutch verse

Morien, son of Sir Aglovale, goes on a quest to find his father.

Aglovale

Morien

Weston, Jessie L. Morien: a Metrical Romance Rendered into English Prose from Medieval Dutch. London: Nutt, 1901.

Mottuls

Möttuls Saga (“Saga of the Mantle”)

13th c.

Norse prose

A mantle brought to Arthur’s court tests the chastity of the ladies.

Chastity Test

Kalinke, Marianne E., trans. The Saga of the Mantle. In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland 1994.

Myrddin

Various; all Myrddin poems

12th c.–15th c.

Welsh verse

A collection of short poems on Myrddin, the prophet and bard in Welsh tradition who anticipated Merlin

Arfderydd

Gwenddolau

Gwenddydd

Myrddin

Rhydderch

Bollard, John K. “Myrddin in Early Welsh Tradition.” In The Romance of Merlin, ed. Peter Goodrich. New York: Garland, 1990.

Nennius

Probably Nennius

Historia Brittonum (“History of the Britons”)

early 9th c.

Latin chronicle

Earliest chronicle containing Arthur, describing his 12 battles against the Saxons and his connection to two “miracles.” Includes Vortigern, Ambrosius.

Ambrosius

Amr

Arthur

Badon

Cabal

Octa

Snowdon

Vortigern

Nennius. Historia Brittonum. In British History and the Welsh Annals, ed. John Morris. London: Phillimore, 1980.

Novellino

Il Novellino

c. 1300

Italian prose

Collection of short stories, including five on Arthurian matters.

Alibano

Good Knight without Fear

Meliadus

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Ogier

Roman d’Ogier le Danois (“Romance of Ogier the Dane”)

14th c.

French verse

Ogier the Dane gets shipwrecked on Avalon, becomes Morgan le Fay’s lover.

Ogier

Bruce, James Douglas. The Evolution of Arthurian Romance from the Beginnings Down to the Year 1300, vol. 1. Gloucester: Peter Smith, 1958.

Owain

Owain

13th c.

Welsh prose

Story of Owain that contains much of the same material as Chrétien’s Yvain

Lady of the Fountain

Yvain

Gantz, Jeffrey, ed. and trans. Owein, or The Countess of the Fountain. In The Mabinogion. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Paien

Paien de Maisières

La Mule Sans Frein (“The Mule Without a Bridle”)

late 12th c.

French verse

Gawain embarks on a quest to recover a bridle for a maiden.

Beheading Game

Sgoidamur

Paien de Maisières. The Mule Without a Bridle, ed. and trans. Elizabeth Brewer. In From Cuchulainn to Gawain. Cambridge: Brewer, 1973.

 

 

Palamedes

Palamedes

c. 1240

French prose

Two tales—Guiron le Courtois and Meliadus—relating the adventures of the generation before Arthur. Preserved in the Compilation of Rusticiano da Pisa.

Esclabor

Febus

Guiron

Meliadus

Palamedes

General

Parlement

The Parlement of the Thre Ages

mid to late 14th c.

English verse

Debate between young, middle-aged, and old men includes an account of Arthur’s life

Excalibur

Mont St. Michel

Offord, M. Y., ed. The Parlement of the Thre Ages. London: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Penninc

Penninc and Pieter Vostaert

Roman van Walewein (“Romance of Gawain”)

mid to late 13th c.

Dutch verse

Gawain seeks the Floating Chessboard, becomes involved in a series of related quests.

Floating Chessboard

Sword with the Two Rings

Wonder

Ysabele

Sparnaay, Hendricus. “The Dutch Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Peredur

Peredur

13th c.

Welsh prose

The adventures of Peredur, related to Chrétien de Troyes’s Perceval

Black Serpent

Fortress of Marvels

Hags of Gloucester

Peredur

Gantz, Jeffrey, ed. and trans. Peredur Son of Evrawg. In The Mabinogion. New York: Penguin, 1976.

Perlesvaus

Perlesvaus

early 13th c.

French prose

Grail romance continuing and adapting Chrétien de Troyes’s Perceval. Perceval becomes Grail King.

Brien of the Isles

Loholt

Orgeluse

Perceval

Bryant, Nigel, trans. The High Book of the Grail. Ipswich: Brewer, 1978.

Pieri

Paolino Pieri

La Storia di Merlino (“The Story of Merlin”)

c. 1300–05

Italian prose

Merlin’s youth and early prophecies

Marinaia

Matteo

Merlin

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Pierre

Pierre de Langtoft

The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft

c. 1300–07

English chronicle

Chronicle of Britain, including Arthur’s life, based on Geoffrey of Monmouth.

Arthur

Constantine

Leo

Lucius

Mordred

Pierre de Langtoft. The Chronicle of Pierre de Langtoft from the Earliest Period to the Death of King Edward I, 2 vols., ed. Thomas Wright. Lessing-Druckerei: Kraus, 1964.

PleierG

Der Pleier

Garel von dem blühenden Tal (“Garel of the Blossoming Valley”)

1240–70

German verse

Sir Garel embarks on a series of quests, defeats an enemy of Arthur.

Ekunaver

Eskilabon

Garel

Vulganus

Pleier, The. The Pleier’s Arthurian Romances, trans. J. W. Thomas. New York: Garland, 1992.

PleierM

Der Pleier

Meleranz

1240–70

German verse

The assorted adventures of Meleranz, Arthur’s nephew.

Dulceflur

Godonas

Meleranz

Tydomie

Pleier, The. The Pleier’s Arthurian Romances, trans. J. W. Thomas. New York: Garland, 1992.

PleierT

Der Pleier

Tandareis and Flordibel

1240–70

German verse

Tandareis, and Arthurian knight, must complete a series of quests to prove himself worthy of Flordibel.

Flordibel

Kandalion

Karedos

Tandareis

Pleier, The. The Pleier’s Arthurian Romances, trans. J. W. Thomas. New York: Garland, 1992.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PostMer

Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin (“Continuation of Merlin”)

1230–40

French prose

Continuation of Prose Merlin found in the Post-Vulgate includes the early adventures of Arthur’s court, the Dolorous Stroke. Followed by the Post-Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal.

Accalon

Balin

Erec

Excalibur

Humber

Lot

Merlin

Morgan le Fay

Morholt

Pelleas

Pellinore

Tor

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vols. 4 & 5. New York: Garland, 1996.

PostMort

Post-Vulgate Mort Artu (“Death of Arthur”)

1230–40

French prose

Brief account of Arthur’s final days and death, based on the Vulgate Mort Artu, follows the Post-Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal.

Arthur

Arthur the Less

Bleoberis

Gawain

Girflet

Guinevere

Lancelot

Logres

Mark

Mordred

Rome

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 5. New York: Garland, 1996.

PostQuest

Post-Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (“Quest of the Holy Grail”)

1230–40

French prose

Account of the Grail Quest, taken in part from the Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal. Follows the Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlini, precedes the Post-Vulgate Mort Artu. Galahad is the Grail Hero. Mark invades Arthur’s lands during the Grail Quest, but is defeated. Includes two near-independent romances, La Folie Lancelot and the Prose Erec.

Arthur the Less

Bors

Erec

Galahad

Gawain

Grail

Lancelot

Mark

Meraugis

Palamedes

Pelles

Perceval

Questing Beast

Sword with the Strange Hangings

Tristan

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 5. New York: Garland, 1996.

Povest

Povest’ o Tryshchane (“Romance of Tristan”)

c. 1580

Slavic prose

The life and adventures of Sir Tristan, adapted from the French Prose Tristan.

Foul Heathen

Galec

Lancelot

Liburn

Samsiz

Tristan

Dekanic-Janoski, Sonja. “The Serbo-Russian Romance of Tristan and Isolt.” In The Tristan Legend: Texts from Northern and Eastern Europe in Modern English Translation, ed. Joyce Hill. Leeds: University of Leeds, 1977.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Presbys

Ho Presbys Hippotes (“The Old Knight”)

c. 1300

Greek verse

An Old Knight visits Arthur’s court and defeats all of Arthur’s knights.

Branor the Brown

Old Knight

Martin, R. H., trans. “A Greek Poem About the Deeds of King Arthur, Tristan, Lancelot, Gawain, Palamedes, and Other Knights of the Round Table.” In The Tristan Legend: Texts from Northern and Eastern Europe in Modern English Translation, ed. Joyce Hill. Leeds: University of Leeds, 1977.

Prophecies

Richart d’Irlande

Les Prophecies de Merlin (“The Prophecies of Merlin”)

1272–79

French prose

Merlin relates a series of prophecies to his scribes.

Alexander the Orphan

Merlin

Berthelot, Anne, ed. Les Prophesies de Merlin. Cologne: Bodmer, 1990.

ProsBrut

Prose Brut

late 13th c. to late 15th c.

various chronicles

Group of Anglo-Norman, English, and Latin chronicles ultimately based on Geoffrey of Monmouth.

Arthur

Hengist

Mordred

Rome

St. Bernard’s Mount

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

ProsMer1

Prose Merlin

early 13th c.

French prose

Birth and deeds of Merlin, based on Robert de Boron’s verse Merlin. Incorporated into the Vulgate Merlin.

Antor

Merlin

Sword in the Stone

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 1. New York: Garland, 1996.

ProsMer2

Prose Merlin

mid-15th c.

English prose

English translation of the Vulgate Merlin.

Merlin

Ninniane

Goodrich, Peter, ed. “Middle English Prose Merlin.” In The Romance of Merlin. New York: Garland, 1990.

ProsTris

Prose Tristan

1230–40

French prose

First full integration of Tristan into the Arthurian cycle. Various manuscripts of varying length, some with conflicting accounts.

Alexander the Orphan

Dinadan

Faramon

Governal

Isolde

Lancelot

Mark

Meliadus

Palamedes

Tristan

Curtis, Renée L., trans. The Romance of Tristan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

PucciB

Antonio Pucci

Gismirante

1340–80

Italian verse

Gismirante embarks on an adventure to save Arthur’s court from starvation.

Gismirante

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

PucciG

Antonio Pucci

Brito di Brettagna

1340–80

Italian verse

Brito must obtain artifacts from Arthur’s court to win the love of a lady.

Brito

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Pulzella

La Pulzella Gaia (“The Merry Maiden”)

1350–75

Italian verse

Pulzella Gaia, the daughter of Morgan le Fay, falls in love with Gawain.

Morgan le Fay

Pulzella Gaia

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

 

 

 

Quando

Quando Tristano e Lancielotto Combattettero al Petrone di Merlino (“When Tristan and Lancelot Fought at Merlin’s Stone”)

late 15th c.

Italian verse

Through a misunderstanding, Tristan and Lancelot fight at one of “Merlin’s Stones.”

Merlin’s Stones

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Raoul

Raoul de Houdenc

Meraugis de Portlesguez

early 13th c.

French verse

Meraugis embarks on adventures to prove himself worthy of Lidoine.

Gorvain Cadrut

Island Without a Name

Lidoine

Meraugis

Sword with the Strange Hangings

Raoul de Houdenc. Meraugis de Portlesguez, ed. Mathias Freidwagner. Halle: Niemeyer, 1897.

Renaut

Renaut de Bâgé

Le Bel Inconnu (“The Fair Unknown”)

1185–90

French verse

Guinglain, Gawain’s son, known as the “Fair Unknown,” must save Blonde Esmeree from two sorcerers.

Esmeree

Fair Unknown

Guinglain

Mabon

Maiden of the White Hands

Renaut de Bâgé. Le Bel Inconnu, ed. Karen Fresco, trans. Colleen P. Donagher. New York: Garland, 1992.

Riddere

Die Riddere Metter Mouwen (“The Knight with the Sleeve”)

mid to late 13th c.

Dutch verse

The adventures of Miraudijs, known as the “Knight with the Sleeve.”

Knight with the Sleeve

Sparnaay, Hendricus. “The Dutch Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

RobertBlo

Robert de Blois

Beaudous

mid to late 13th c.

French verse

The adventures of Gawain’s son, Beaudous.

Beaudous

Fair Unknown

General

RobertBorJ

Robert de Boron

Joseph d’Arimathie

1191–1202

French verse

The early history of the Grail and the life of Joseph of Arimathea.

Alain

Bron

Grail

Joseph of Arimathea

Robert de Boron. Joseph d’Arimathie, ed. Richard O’Gorman. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1995.

RobertBorM

Robert de Boron

Merlin

1191–1202

French verse

Fragment detailing Merlin’s association with Arthur.

Merlin

Sword-in-the-Stone

General

RobertG

Robert of Gloucester

The Chronicle of Robert of Gloucester

late 13th c.

English verse

Chronicle of Britain, including Arthur’s life.

Arthur

Fletcher, Robert H. The Arthurian Material in the Chronicles, Especially Those of Great Britain and France. Boston: Ginn, 1906.

Sachs

Hans Sachs

Die Ehbrecherbruck (“The Adulterer’s Bridge”)

1545

German verse

Arthur builds a bridge to test Guinevere’s chastity; Guinevere passes.

Chastity Tests.

General

SagaTI

Saga af Tristram ok Isodd (“Saga of Tristan and Isolde”)

14th c.

Icelandic prose

The story of Tristan and Isolde

Isolde

Isolde the Dark

Kalegras

Mórodd

Spain

Tristan

Hill, Joyce, ed. and trans. “The Icelandic Saga of Tristan and Isolt.” In The Tristan Legend: Texts from Northern and Eastern Europe in Modern English Translation. Leeds: University of Leeds, 1977.

SaintsCad

Lifris

Life of St. Cadoc

late 11th c.

Latin hagiography

St. Cado saves a murderer from Arthur’s wrath.

Cadoc

Chambers, E. K. Arthur of Britain. Cambridge: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1927.

SaintsCar

Life of St. Carannog

late 11th c.

Latin hagiography

St. Carannog helps Arthur drive away a serpent.

Carannog

Chambers, E. K. Arthur of Britain. Cambridge: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1927.

SaintsI

Life of St. Illtud

late 11th c.

Latin hagiography

The deeds of St. Illtud, Arthur’s cousin.

Illtud

Chambers, E. K. Arthur of Britain. Cambridge: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1927.

SaintsP

Life of St. Padarn

late 11th c.

Latin hagiography

Padarn traps Arthur in a chasm to punish him for insolence.

Padarn

Chambers, E. K. Arthur of Britain. Cambridge: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1927.

Sala

Pierre Sala

Tristan

1525–29

French prose

Prose version of the life of Tristan.

Tristan

Sala, Pierre. Tristan, ed. L. Muir. Geneva: Droz, 1958.

Scott

Sir Walter Scott

The Bridal of Triermain

1804

English verse

Triermain, Arthur’s wicked daughter, visits Arthur’s court and turns a tournament into a blood-bath. Merlin puts her to sleep.

Triermain

Scott, Sir Walter. “The Bridal of Triermain.” In The Complete Poetical Works of Sir Walter Scott, ed. Horace E. Scudder. Cambridge: Riverside Press, 1900.

Short

Short Metrical Chronicle

1307

English verse

Chronicle of confused chronology, includes Arthur.

Arthur

Hengist

Uther

Zettl, Ewald, ed. An Anonymous Short English Metrical Chronicle. London: Oxford University Press, 1935.

SirCor

Romance of Sir Corneus

15th c.

English verse

Chastity test involving a drinking horn.

Chastity Tests.

General

SirDeg

Sir Degrevant

c. 1400

English verse

The adventures of Sir Degrevant

Degrevant

Casson, L. F., ed. The Romance of Sir Degrevant. London: Oxford University Press, 1949.

SirGawain

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight

c. 1400

English verse

One of the finest Middle English romances. Gawain is challenged to a Beheading Game by the Green Knight.

Gawain

Green Knight

Stone, Brian, trans. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight. London: Penguin, 1974.

SirLamb

Sir Lambewell

16th c.

English verse

Variation of the tale of Sir Lanval.

Lanval

Hales, John W. and Frederick J. Furnivall, eds. “Sir Lambewell.” In Bishop Percy’s Folio Manuscript. London: Trübner, 1867.

SirLanc

“Sir Lancelot du Lake”

16th c.

English ballad

Lancelot fights Tarquin.

Lancelot

Tericam

Percy, Thomas, ed. “Sir Lancelot du Lake.” In Relique of Ancient English Poetry. London: Dent, 1938.

SirLand

Sir Landeval

early to mid 14th c.

English verse

Variation of the tale of Sir Lanval.

Lanval

Sheperd, Stephen A., ed. Sir Landevale. In Middle English Romances. New York: Norton, 1995.

SirPerc

Sir Perceval of Galles

early 14th c.

English verse

The adventures of Sir Perceval without the Grail.

Acheflur

Perceval

French, Walter H. and Charles B. Hale, eds. Sir Perceval of Galles. In Middle English Metrical Romances. New York: Russell & Russell, 1964.

SirTris

Sir Tristrem

c. 1300

English verse

Full “courtly” version of Tristan’s life.

Isolde

Mark

Morgan

Rouland

Tristan

Lupack, Alan, ed. Lancelot of the Laik and Sir Tristrem. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994.

Spenser

Edmund Spenser

The Faerie Queene

1570–99

English verse

“Prince” Arthur tries to find Gloriana, the Fairy Queen, assists a number of knights during his adventure. Poem is incomplete.

Gloriana

Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queen, ed. A. C. Hamilton. London: Longman, 1977.

Spoils

Attributed to Taliessin

Preiddeu Annwfn (“The Spoils of Annwn”)

c. 900

Welsh verse

Arthur and his warriors visit the otherworld and recover a cauldron.

Annwn

Cauldrons

Pridwen

Bollard, John K. “Arthur in Early Welsh Tradition.” In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland, 1994.

Stanz

The Stanzaic Le Morte Arthur (“The Death of Arthur”)

14th c.

English verse

Arthur’s death as described in the Vulgate Mort Artu, including the Maiden of Escalot, Guinevere’s infidelity, and Mordred’s rebellion.

Bedivere

Escalot

Guinevere

Lancelot

Mador

Mordred

Salisbury

Benson, Larry D., ed. King Arthur’s Death. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1994.

Stricker

Der Stricker

Daniel von dem blühenden Tal (“Daniel of the Blossoming Valley”)

1210–25

German verse

Sir Daniel overcomes Arthur’s enemies, becomes a king.

Cluse

Daniel

Matur

Der Stricker. Daniel of the Blossoming Valley, trans. Michael Resler. New York: Garland, 1990.

SyreGaw

Syre Gawene and the Carle of Carlyle

c. 1400

English verse

Gawain visits the Carl of Carlisle, acquits himself honorably, marries the Carl’s daughter.

Baldwin

Carl of Carlisle

Gawain

Hahn, Thomas, ed. Sir Gawain and the Carl of Carlisle. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Tavola

La Tavola Ritonda (“The Round Table”)

1325–1350

Italian prose

Italian adaptation of the Prose Tristan and the Vulgate Queste.

Dinadan

Galahad

Lancelot

New Table

Old Table

Palamedes

Tristan

Shaver, Anne, trans. Tristan and the Round Table: a Translation of La Tavola Ritonda. Binghamton, NY: Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1983.

TennIK

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

Idylls of the King

1859–86

English verse

Collection of poems tracing Arthur’s rise and downfall.

Arthur

Balin

Elaine

Gareth

Geraint

Grail

Guinevere

Merlin

Pelleas

Tournament of the Dead Innocence

Vivien

Tennyson, Alfred Lord. Idylls of the King, ed. J. M. Gray. London: Penguin, 1983.

TennLS

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

“The Lady of Shallot”

1832

English verse

Lament of the Lady of Shallot (Escalot) for Lancelot.

Shallot

Tennyson, Alfred Lord. The Poems of Tennyson, ed. Christopher Ricks. London: Longmans, 1969.

Thelwall

John Thelwall

The Fairy of the Lake

1801

English play

Rowena lusts for Arthur. Vortigern lusts for Guinevere. The Lady of the Lake saves them both.

Guinevere

Lady of the Lake

Rowena

Thelwall, John. The Fairy of the Lake. In Poems Chiefly Written in Retirement, ed. Johnathan Wordsworth. Oxford: Woodstock, 1989.

Thomas

Thomas of England

Tristan

1170–75

French verse

The earliest “courtly” version of the Tristan legend. Exists only in fragments.

Isolde

Isolde of the White Hands

Kahedins

Mark

Tristan

Thomas of Britain. Tristan, ed. and trans. Stewart Gregory. New York: Garland, 1991.

Tistram

“Tistram og isolde” (“Tristan and Isolde”)

16th c.

Danish ballad

Tristan and Isolde enjoy a rendezvous under a linden-tree.

Isolde

Mangus

Tristan

Bradley, S. A. J. “The Danish Ballads of Tristan and Isolt.” In The Tristan Legend: Texts from Northern and Eastern Europe in Modern English Translation, ed. Joyce Hill. Leeds, University of Leeds, 1977.

Topography

N/A

N/A

N/A

Physical topography

Various Arthurian locales in Britain and elsewhere.

 

Ashe, Geoffrey. The Landscape of King Arthur. New York: Holt, 1987.

Triads

Triads of the Island of Britain

11th c. to 14th c.

Welsh “Triads”

Indexes of Welsh oral legends, grouped into sets of three (Triads), many of which mention Arthur.

Bran

Camlann

Guinevere

Mordred

Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: the Welsh Triads. Cardiff: University of Wales Press,1978.

TrisFrag

Welsh Tristan fragment

c. 1550

Welsh prose

A fragment of a tale of Tristan and Isolde.

Isolde

Mark

Tristan

Thompson, R. L., trans. “A Welsh Fragment of Tristan.” In The Tristan Legend: Texts from Northern and Eastern Europe in Modern English Translation, ed. Joyce Hill. Leeds: University of Leeds, 1977.

TrisKv

“Tristrams Kvædi” (“Poem of Tristan”)

early 15th c.

Icelandic ballad

Account of the death of Tristan.

Isolde

Isolde the Dark

Tristan

Hill, Joyce. “The Icelandic Ballad of Tristan.” In The Tristan Legends: Texts from Northern and Eastern Europe in Modern English Translation, ed. Joyce Hill. Leeds: University of Leeds, 1977.

TrisMonch

Tristan als Mönch (“Tristan as a Monk”)

early to mid 13th c.

German verse

Tristan disguises himself as a monk to meet with Isolde.

Isolde

Tristan

General

TrisSaga

Tristrams Saga ok Ísöndar

1226

Norse prose

First full “courtly” version of the Tristan saga.

Isolde

Mark

Tristan

Scach, Paul, trans. The Saga of Tristram and Isond. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1973.

TrisStone

N/A

Tristan Stone

Erected 6th c.

Monolith with inscription

A monolith in Cornwall that commemorates the death of “Drustanus,” son of “Cunomorus.”

Cunomorus

Tristan

Tristan Stone

Ashe, Geoffrey. The Landscape of King Arthur. New York: Holt, 1988.

TristanoP

Tristano Panciaticchiano

early 14th c.

Italian prose

Various portions of Tristan’s life, derived ultimately from the French Prose Tristan and the Vulgate romances.

Giafredi

Tristan

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

 

 

 

TristanoR

Tristano Riccardiano

late 13th c.

Italian prose

Italian adaptation of the French Prose Tristan.

Brunor

Galehaut

Mark

Meliadus

Palamedes

Sanza Avventura

Tristan

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

TristanoV

Tristano Veneto

15th c.

Italian prose

Venetian translation of The French Prose Tristan.

Isolde

Mark

Tristan

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Turke

The Turke and Gowin

c. 1500

English verse

A turk (churl) leads Gawain on a series of adventures, ending on the Isle of Man.

Beheading Game

Gromer

Man

Hahn, Thomas, ed. The Turke and Gawain. In Sir Gawain: Eleven Romances and Tales. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 1995.

Tyolet

Tyolet

late 12th c.

French verse

The youthful adventures of Sir Tyolet.

Morgan le Fay

Tyolet

Weston, Jessie L. Guingamor, Lanval, Tyolet, Le Bisclaveret. New York: AMS Press, 1970.

UlrichZ

Ulrich von Zatzikhoven

Lanzelet

c. 1200

German verse

Lancelot’s early adventures, perils, and wives. Includes an abduction & rescue of Guinevere and a Chastity Test.

Ade

Iblis

Iweret

Lancelot

Malduc

Pluris

Valerin

Ulrich von Zatzikhoven. Lanzelet, trans. Kenneth G. T. Webster. New York: Columbia University Press, 1951.

Vallet

Le Vallet à la Cote Mal Tailliée (“The Knight of the Ill-Fitting Coat”)

13th c.

French verse

A fragment. The Knight of the Ill-Fitting Coat arrives at Arthur’s court.

Knight of the Ill-Fitting Coat

General

Vasnacht

Das Vasnachtspil Mit der Kron (“The Shrovetide Play with the Crown”)

15th c.

German Shrovetide Play

King of Abian sends a crown to Arthur that tests the fidelity of the men at court.

Chastity Tests

General

Vendetta

La Vendetta Che fe Messer Lanzelloto de la Morte di Miser Tristano (“The Revenge of Sir Lancelot for the Death of Sir Tristan”)

14th c.

Italian verse

Lancelot, avenging Tristan’s murder, kills King Mark of Cornwall.

Lancelot

Mark

Tristan

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

Vengeance

Raoul, possibly Raoul de Houdenc

La Vengeance Raguidel (“The Avenging of Raguidel”)

early 13th c.

French verse

Gawain avenges the death of Sir Raguidel, with the help of Yder, by defeating King Guengasoain.

Gawain

Guengasoain

Raguidel

Yder

Raoul de Houdenc. La Vengeance Raguidel, ed. Mathias Friedwagner. Halle: Niemeyer, 1909.

VitaMer

Vita di Merlino con le Sue Profetie (“The Life of Merlin, with His Prophecies”)

c. 1480

Italian prose

Italian translation of the Prose Merlin

Gregorio

Lady of the Lake

Meliadus

Merlin

Gardner, Edmund G. The Arthurian Legend in Italian Literature. London: Dent, 1930.

 

 

VulgEst

Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal (“History of the Holy Grail”)

1220–35

French prose

Grand history of the Grail based partly on Robert de Boron. Covers Joseph of Arimathea’s life, his emigration to Britain, and the founding of the Grail Castle at Corbenic. Followed by the Vulgate Merlin.

Alain

Bleeding Lance

Bron

Camelot

Celidoine

Corbenic

Grail

Grail Table

Joseph of Arimathea

Josephus

Mordrains

Nascien

Peter

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 1. New York: Garland, 1996.

VulgLanc

Vulgate Lancelot

1215–30

French prose

Long account of Lancelot’s birth, rearing, knighting, adventures, love for Guinevere, and rescue of Guinevere from Meleagant. It follows the Vulgate Merlin and precedes the Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal.

Ban

Bors

Claudas

Corbenic

Dolorous Guard

Gaheris

Galehaut

Guinevere

Guinevere the False

Hector

Lady of the Lake

Lancelot

Lionel

Meleagant

Saxon Rock

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vols. 2 & 3. New York: Garland, 1996.

VulgMer

Vulgate Merlin

1220–35

French prose

Redaction of the Prose Merlin with a long continuation describing Merlin’s birth and deeds, Arthur’s ascension to the throne, the war against the Saxons, and the Roman War. It follows the Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal and precedes the Vulgate Lancelot.

Arthur

Ban

Claudas

Gawain

Guinevere

Lady of the Lake

Leodegan

Merlin

Pendragon

Rions

Rome

Round Table

Saxons

Sword in the Stone

Uther

Vortigern

Yvain

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 1. New York: Garland, 1996.

VulgMort

Vulgate Mort Artu (“Death of Arthur”)

1215–30

French prose

The downfall of Arthur’s court; the adultery of Lancelot and Guinevere; Arthur’s war with Lancelot; Mordred’s rebellion; the final battle; Arthur’s death. Follows the Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal.

Arthur

Escalot

Gawain

Girflet

Guinevere

Lancelot

Mador

Mordred

Rome

Salisbury

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 4. New York: Garland, 1996.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VulgQuest

Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal (“Quest of the Holy Grail”)

1215–30

French prose

The quest to find the Holy Grail. Galahad is the victor, with Bors and Perceval. Gawain is called a murderer. Lancelot is denied spiritual fulfillment because of his affair with Guinevere. Follows the Vulgate Lancelot and precedes the Vulgate Mort Artu.

Bors

Castle of Maidens

Corbenic

Galahad

Grail

Lancelot

Lionel

Perceval

Sarras

Sword with the Strange Hangings

Lacy, Norris J., ed. Lancelot-Grail: the Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post Vulgate in Translation, vol. 4. New York: Garland, 1996.

Wace

Wace

Roman de Brut (“Romance of Brut”)

c. 1155

French verse

Chronicle of British History based on Geoffrey of Monmouth; first appearance of the Round Table.

Arthur

Rome

Round Table

Saxons

Wace. Roman de Brut. In The Arthurian Chronicles of Wace and Layamon, ed. and trans. Eugene Mason. London: Dent, 1970.

Walewein

Walewein ende Keye (“Gawain and Kay”)

mid to late 13th c.

Dutch verse

Gawain humiliates Kay.

Kay

Sparnaay, Hendricus. “The Dutch Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Wartburg

Wartburgkrieg

13th c.

Compilation of German poems

Wolfram von Eschenbach debates the sorcerer Clinschor.

Clinschor

Wolfram von Eschenbach

General

Wedding

Possibly Sir Thomas Malory

The Wedding of Sir Gawain and Dame Ragnell

15th c.

English verse

Gawain marries the Loathly Lady to find what women desire most in order to save Arthur from a captor.

Gawain

Gromer

Loathly Lady

Ragnelle

Sheperd, Stephen H. A., ed. The Weddyng of Syr Gawen and Dame Ragnell for Helpyng of Kyng Arthoure. In Middle English Romances. New York: Norton, 1995.

WelshGer

Geraint filius Erbin

10th c. or 11th c.

Welsh poem

Geraint’s deeds at the battle of Llongborth are praised; Arthur or his men were also present.

Geraint

Llongborth

Bollard, John K. “Arthur in Early Welsh Tradition.” In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland, 1994.

WelshGlew

Untitled

10th c. or 11th c.

Welsh verse

A dialogue between Arthur and Glewlwyd Mighty Grip. The deeds of Kay and other warriors are mentioned.

Cath Palug

Glewlwyd

Bollard, John K. “Arthur in Early Welsh Tradition.” In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland, 1994.

WelshSG

“The Stanzas of the Graves”

10th c. or 11th c.

Welsh verse

The grave sites of a number of heroes are named.

Anoeth

Arthur

Bollard, John K. “Arthur in Early Welsh Tradition.” In The Romance of Arthur: an Anthology of Medieval Texts in Translation, ed. James J. Wilhelm. New York: Garland, 1994.

Wigamur

Wigamur

1240–60

German verse

The youth, education, and adventures of Sir Wigamur.

Wigamur

General

 

 

 

WilliamM

William of Malmesbury

Gesta Regum Anglorum (“Deeds of the Kings of England”)

1125

Latin chronicle

Chronicle of British history includes a brief mention of Arthur and the first appearance of Gawain. An interpolation contains a story of Yder and Glastonbury.

Arthur

Gawain

William of Malmesbury. William of Malmesbury’s Chronicle of the Kings of England, ed. and trans. J. A. Giles. London: Bohn, 1847.

Wirnt

Wirnt von Grafenberg

Wigalois

early 13th c.

German verse

Wigalois, son of Gawain, liberates an imprisoned country, marries its princess.

Korntin

Lion

Wigalois

Wirnt von Grafenberg. Wigalois: the Knight of Fortune’s Wheel, trans. J. W. Thomas. Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1977.

Wolfram

Wolfram von Eschenbach

Parzival

1200–1210

German verse

Greatest Middle High German romance adapts Chrétien de Troyes’s Perceval. Perceval achieves the Grail.

Anfortas

Condwiramurs

Feirefiz

Gahmuret

Gawain

Grail

Grail Family

Perceval

Wolfram von Eschenbach. Parzival, trans. A. T. Hatto. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1980.

Wordsworth

William Wordsworth

“The Egyptian Maid”

1828

English verse

Merlin destroys a ship and kills an Egyptian Princess. Galahad resurrects and marries her.

Egyptian Maid

Nina

Water Lily

Wordsworth, William. “The Egyptian Maid.” In The Poems of Wordsworth, ed. Andrew J. George. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932.

Wrake

De Wrake van Ragisel (“The Avenging of Ragisel”)

early to mid 13th c.

Dutch verse

Dutch adaptation of the French La Vengeance Raguidel.

Gawain

Raguidel

Yder

Sparnaay, Hendricus. “The Dutch Romances.” In Arthurian Literature in the Middle Ages, ed. R. S. Loomis. Oxford: Clarendon, 1959.

Yder

Yder

ealrly 13th c.

French verse

The adventures of Yder at Arthur’s court. Arthur is portrayed as a tyrant.

Guenloie

Kay

Yder

Adams, Alison, ed. The Romance of Yder. Cambridge: Brewer, 1983.

Ysaie

Ysaïe le Triste (“Ysaïe the Sad”)

late 14th c. or early 15th c.

French prose

Ysaïe (son of Tristan) and his son, Marc, strive to bring justice to an anarchic post-Arthurian Britain.

Auberon

Marc

Ysaïe

General

Ywain

Ywain and Gawain

1310–40

English verse

English adaptation of Chrétien de Troyes’s Yvain.

Yvain

Sheperd, Stephen H. A., ed. Ywaine and Gawain. In Middle English Romances. New York: Norton, 1995.

Copyright Christopher Bruce. All Rights Reserved. Provided here by his kind permission. Layout of book modified to fit the Celtic Twilight format.