Arthurian Name Dictionary

Table of Errant Companions [*Compaignons Errans]

One of the three tables in Arthur’s court. The knights of the Table of Errant Companions sought adventures and awaited promotion to the Round Table. Lower than the Table of Errant Companions was the Table of Less-Valued Knights. [PostMer]

Table of Less-Valued Knights [*Chevaliers Moins Prisiés]

The lowest of Arthur’s knightly orders, composed of old, weak, ill, cowardly, or inexperienced knights who did not seek adventures. A rank above the Table of Less-Valued Knights was the Table of Errant Companions. Perceval was originally a Less-Valued Knight before he was more properly seated at the Round Table. [PostMer]


The homeland of a knight named Cadoc, who was saved by Erec. It is probably a variation of Cardueil. [HartmannE]


A knight in Arthur’s service who was the son of Reis. [Arthur]


A knight who fought for the King with a Hundred Knights against King Mark of Cornwall during Mark’s tournament at Lancien. [Contin4]

Taliesin [Talgesin, Taliessin, Talyessin, Teliesin, Thelgesinus]

A famous sixth-century bard from northern Britain who traveled widely. He may have lived at the court of Kings Urien and Owain of Rheged. Several poems attributed to Taliesin survive in The Book of Taliesin and other sources, though it is unclear how many of these are authentic. Many of them glorify the lives and lament the deaths of Urien and Owain. He is first connected (anachronistically) to Arthur in The Spoils of Annwn, in which Arthur travels to the Welsh otherworld and obtains a magic cauldron. Taliesin, the supposed author of the poem, is one of only seven warriors who survived the expedition. A similar fate befalls him in the non-Arthurian Welsh tale of Branwen, in which he is one of seven to survive King Bran the Blessed’s conquest of Ireland. In Culhwch and Olwen, he is Arthur’s “chief bard.” The Welsh Triads given him a son named Afaon.
   Geoffrey of Monmouth makes him a friend of Merlin and tells us that Taliesin and Merlin took Arthur’s body to Avalon after the battle of Camlann. Taliesin came to Merlin’s assistance when Merlin went insane and roamed the forest of Caledon. After Merlin was healed, Taliesin remained with him in Caledon.
   Taliesin is unknown to Medieval romance, but in Thelwall’s The Fairy of the Lake and Tennyson’s Idylls, he resumes his Culhwch role as Arthur’s chief bard. [Spoils, Culhwch, Nennius, GeoffVM, Triads, Thelwall, TennIK]


King of Denmark and son of King Saladin. He besieged King Urien because he wanted to marry Marine, Urien’s daughter. Arthur’s knights, led by Claris and Laris, lifted the siege, and Arthur killed Tallas. [Claris]

Tallidés of the Marsh [Callidés]

A lord who besieged the Castle of Maidens because he wanted to marry one of the maidens, which the castle’s lady refused to allow. Sagremor, championing the castle, fought him in single combat, and Tallidés lost. When he declared his great love for the maiden, however, the lady of the castle relented and the two were wed. [Contin3]


A castle owned by Beauté, amie of Beaudous. When Lord Madoines invaded Beautés lands, he besieged Tallis. [RobertBlo]

Tallwch [Trallwch]

Tristan’s father in Welsh legend. An actual king named Talorch, father of Drust, ruled the Picts in the late eighth century. [Triads, Dream, TrisFrag]


A man made from iron who became the squire of the knight Artegall. [Spenser]

Tamar [Tambre]

A river in Cornwall. In Layamon, Arthur fights his final battle with Mordred at Camelford on the Tamar River. Geoffrey of Monmouth calls the location Camel, and in Welsh sources, the conflict is called the battle of Camlann. [Layamon, Mannyng]


Chief squire of Perceval’s father Gahmuret. He accompanied Gahmuret on his adventures through Africa and to Wales, and had the unfortunate duty of informing Gahmuret’s wife, Queen Herzeloyde, that Gahmuret had been killed. [Wolfram]


Father of Condwiramurs, who became Perceval’s wife. Tampenteire ruled the land of Brobarz, which he left to his daughter. He had a son named Kardeiz. He was the brother of Kyot and Manpfilyot and the brother-in-law of Gornemant. [Wolfram]

Tanabos the Enchanter [Tanaburs]

A necromancer who lived in Britain some time between the time of Joseph of Arimathea and Uther Pendragon. He was hailed as the greatest magician ever to reside on the island, save Merlin. To keep a knight from reaching his unfaithful wife, who lived at Corbenic, Tanabos enchanted the Grail Castle in such a way that it could only be found by accident. The enchantment lasted until the time of Charlemagne, who razed Corbenic. [PostQuest, ProsTris]


A Knight of the Round Table from Camelot who was killed during the Grail Quest. His brothers were named Alma and Luzes. [PostQuest]

Tanaguin [Tanaguins, Thanaguis]

One of the knights in the Vulgate Mort Artu who joined Agravain’s plan to capture Lancelot and Guinevere in flagrante in Guinevere’s chambers. He harbored an unexplained hate for Lancelot. He was the first to be killed by Lancelot outside Guinevere’s room. In Malory, Agravain himself takes this distinction. Gawain once assisted a friend of Tanaguin’s in the Castle of the Mill tournament. [VulgLanc, VulgMort]


An evil knight who killed his son, Danor, in order to sleep with his daughter-in-law. To protect himself from witnesses, he also killed his own daughter, on whom Arthur had fathered Arthur the Less. [PostQuest]

Tanbruns le Preus

One of several Irish robber knights defeated by Lancelot on his way to Rigomer castle in Les Merveilles de Rigomer. [Merveil]

Tancree the Little

Niece of the king of Escavalon or of Arthur. She married Sir Guinganbresil. [Contin1]


Hero of Der Pleier’s Tandareis and Flordibel. The son of King Dulcemar and Queen Antikonie of Tandernas, Tandareis went to Arthur’s court as a youth and served as a page. Arthur assigned him to Flordibel, one of Guinevere’s maidservants, and over the course of ten years, Tandareis and Flordibel fell deeply in love. Arthur had sworn to kill any man who won Flordibel’s love, so the two lovers fled to Tandernas, which Arthur subsequently besieged. After several battles in which Tandareis proved his knightly skill, Dulcemar and Gawain managed to convince Arthur to declare peace. Still angry at Tandareis’s offense, Arthur banished him from his court into foreign lands so that Tandareis could establish honor through adventure. Tandareis embarked on a series of quests, during which he liberated the lands of Malmontan and Mermin from the evil giant Karedoz, saved a queen named Albiun from a knight named Kurion, rescued the maiden Claudin from Count Kalubin, and was imprisoned by a malevolent knight named Kandalion. During his imprisonment, he was kept alive by Antonie, Kandalion’s sister, who let him out three times so that he could attend tournaments at Arthur’s court. Kandalion released him when he learned that Arthur—who had heard of Tandareis’s adventures and wanted him back—was offering a substantial reward for news of Tandareis. Tandareis returned to Arthur’s court in glory and, after some complications in which Claudin and Antonie both claimed the right to wed him, Tandareis and Flordibel were married. Tandareis graciously bestowed Malmontan and Mermin on his parents, but stayed to rule them as steward and heir. [PleierT]


The homeland and castle of Tandareis, hero of Der Pleier’s Tandareis and Flordibel. Ruled by Tandareis’s parents, King Dulcemar and Queen Anticoni, it was besieged by Arthur to avenge an offense committed by Tandareis. Dulcemar and Gawain managed to negotiate a peace. The kingdom is first mentioned by Wolfram von Eschenbach in the non-Arthurian Willehalm. [PleierT]


One of many ladies at Arthur’s court to fail a chastity test involving a magic goblet. [Heinrich]

Tangled Wood

The fortress occupied by King Valerin. Valerin kidnapped Guinevere and brought her back to the Tangled Wood. The fortress—which is reminiscent of an otherworldly location—was set high upon a mountain, and was cordoned by a tangle of brambles, branches, and snakes that kept out everyone. Arthur could not break the defenses, and only an intervention by the grand wizard Malduc could undo the magic wall. [UlrichZ]


A lady at Arthur’s court who was the daughter of Gweir Servitor of Birds. [Culhwch]


Father of the Saracen lord Isenhart. [Wolfram]

Tannings [Channing, Taningues]

A castle near the Severn river, ruled by Duke Brandeban, a friend of Sir Sagremor. Tannings was also the home of Helain, a squire who was knighted by Gawain, and of Alier. [LancLac, VulgLanc, Livre]


A Knight of the Round Table, related to Lancelot, who participated in the Grail Quest. [PostQuest]


Sister of the Little Knight, a friend of Gawain. She fell in love with Gawain and became his paramour. [Contin2]


A scribe from Vercelli who served Arthur and recorded the deeds of the Knights of the Round Table. [VulgLanc]


Wife of Alexander (emperor of Constantinople) and mother of Alis and Alexander. Her son Alexander served Arthur for a brief time. [ChretienC]

Tantrist [Tantris, Tramtrist, Tremtrist]

An alias adopted by Tristan on his visit to Ireland, when he met Isolde. He used the alias so that he would not be recognized as the killer of Morholt, the king’s brother-in-law. In some versions, he goes to Ireland to be healed of a poisoned wound received from Morholt. In others, he uses the name Pro on this first visit and “Tantrist” on his second, when searching for a wife for King Mark. Gottfried says that “Tantrist” killed a dragon and thus was forgiven by the royal family, even after Isolde (or her mother) matched the metal fragment found in Morholt’s skull to the missing piece of “Tantrist’s” sword and discovered the deception. In one source, Tristan is given the alias by Rohand, his tutor, to protect him from Duke Morgan, who killed his father. In others, Tristan adopts the name a second time when disguised as a madman in Cornwall. [FolieB, FolieO, Eilhart, Gottfried, ProsTris, SirTris, Malory]

Tarabel [Terrabyl]

A Cornish castle. Malory assigns it the role given to Dimiloc by Geoffrey of Monmouth: the castle fortified by the Duke of Cornwall when he went to war with Uther Pendragon (the duke defended Tarabel while placing his wife in Tintagel). When Uther abandoned the siege to enter Tintagel, the duke rode out of Tarabel and was promptly slain by Uther’s soldiers. After Arthur became king, King Rions and his brother Nero besieged the castle as part of their campaign against Arthur. Sir Balin captured Rions, and Arthur defeated Nero’s army at Tarabel, killing Nero and Lot in the battle. Merlin effected this victory by distracting Lot with a wondrous tale, causing him to enter the battle too late. [PostMer, Malory]


Father of Arthur’s warrior Glinyeu. [Culhwch]


A castle which was forced, annually, to turn over a dozen maidens to a horrible giant named Aupatris. Gaheris, Gawain’s brother, killed the giant and ended the wicked custom. The people of Taraquin erected a monument to the battle; this monument was later destroyed by the sons of Mordred. [VulgLanc]


A warrior in Arthur’s service from the city of Dumbarton. He was killed at Cwm Cerwyn by the boar Twrch Trwyth. [Culhwch]


Father of Twrch Trwyth, an enchanted boar pursued by Arthur in Welsh legend. [Culhwch]


One of Guinevere’s messengers. [VulgLanc]


A castle in the land of King Evalach (Mordrain) of Sarras. [VulgEst]


Brother of King Bagdemagus of Gorre and nephew of King Urien. Tarsan joined Arthur’s war against King Meliadus of Lyonesse. He engaged in combat with Melian, Meliadus’s nephew, and the two knights killed each other. [Palamedes]


A rich city given to Largina by King Esclabor, her lover. [Tavola]


The wife of Licorant and mother of Enide. She lived with her husband in the town of Laluth until Erec married Enide and gave them two castles. [ChretienE]


Father of Arthur’s Sir Seguarades. Tarsin’s wife had a brief affair with Morholt of Ireland. [Palamedes]


A city in southern Turkey, near the Mediterranean Sea. It was the birthplace of Hermoine the Hermit, who lived in the time of Joseph of Arimathea. During Arthur’s days, it was part of the Roman Empire, and soldiers from Tarsus joined Emperor Lucius’s war against Arthur. [VulgEst, Malory]

Tartary [Tartare]

A medieval name for China. According to the Alliterative Morte Arthure, Tartary joined Lucius the Roman in his war against Arthur. [Allit, Malory]


A great giant slain by Morholt. Morholt took his sword, which he later gave to Tristan. [Tavola]


Son of Pharien and brother of Anguin. He was raised by the Lady of the Lake and knighted by Sir Lionel. [VulgLanc]

Tathal Honest Deceitful

An Arthurian warrior. [Culhwch]


King of the Tartars who served Emperor Filimenis of Constantinople. He joined Filimenis in a brief war against Arthur. [Floriant]

Taulat1 [Taul(l)as]

An evil knight who barged into Arthur’s court, killed one of Arthur’s knights in front of Guinevere, and promised to return every year to do the same. Arthur’s knight Jaufré tracked Taulat down and avenged the insult by killing him. [Jaufre]

Taulat2 [Caulas]

A giant who terrorized Cornwall. Tristan, who had gone insane, came upon Taulat in the process of killing a knight named Dynaunt. Tristan beheaded the giant. Taulat’s brother, Taulurd, had previous been slain by Sir Marhaus. [ProsTris, Malory]

Taulat3 of Rougemont [Caulas, Talac, Tallac, Taulas]

A vassal of Arthur who rebelled against the king in Yder. In response, Arthur besieged his castle of Rougemont. Sir Yder, who had become disillusioned with Arthur, joined Taulat and the defenders. During the battle, Yder was severely wounded by Kay. This wound dismayed both Arthur and Taulat so much that they reconciled and ended the battle. According to the Vulgate Merlin, Taulat was later killed by some Knights of the Round Table, prompting his uncle Helys to attack all knights. [Yder]

Taulat4 the Great [Caulas, Kollas]

A Knight of the Round Table from Desert who held the title of duke. He fought in the Noauz tournament and was rescued from the Dolorous Prison by Lancelot. Envious of Lancelot’s family, Taulat, his brother Senela, and his three cousins set upon Galahad during the Grail Quest. Taulat was killed by Bleoberis in the battle. [ChretienE, ChretienL, Contin1, LancLac, PostQuest, ProsTris]


A giant who plagued the lands of Earl Fergus. Sir Marhaus, a Knight of the Round Table, agreed to deal with the monster. When Taulurd nearly killed Marhaus in combat, Marhaus changed his tactics and fled. Following Marhaus into a river, Taulurd became stuck in the mire. Marhaus stood on the shore with Fergus’s men and threw stones at Taulurd’s head until the giant died. Marhaus liberated prisoners from Taulurd’s castle and made off with a large amount of treasure. Taulurd’s brother, Taulas, was later killed by Tristan. [Malory]

Taurian the Wild

Brother of Arthur’s Sir Dodinel the Wild. He was a friend of Perceval’s hermit uncle, Trevrizent. Perceval came across one of his lances, abandoned near Treverizent’s abode, and took it. [Wolfram]


A castle owned by Arthur. [VulgMort]


A Saxon king involved in the plundering of Arundel and the kidnapping of Gawain’s mother, Belisent. He later encountered Gawain’s forces, and Gawain’s brothers literally diced him. [VulgMer, Arthour]


A Saxon warrior slain by Gaheris in a skirmish at Camelot. [VulgMer, Arthour]


A king in the service of Rions, Arthur’s enemy. [VulgMer]

Tegau Gold-Breast

A lady at Arthur’s court in the Welsh Triads. She possessed an enchanted mantle which, when worn by a woman, would tell if she was faithful or adulterous by appearing, respectively, a perfect fit or too short. Such mantles are used in chastity tests throughout Arthurian romance. [Triads]

Tegfan the Lame

An Arthurian warrior in Welsh legend. [Culhwch]


Father of Morfran and grandfather of Myrddin. [Culhwch, Dream]

Tegyr Cup Bearer

An Arthurian warrior. [Culhwch]


A river in west Wales. Vortigern’s fortress was situated on the river. [Nennius]

Teilo [Teliau]

A legendary Welsh Saint. In the Life of St. Cadoc, he joins St. David and St. Cadoc in mediating a dispute between Arthur and Ligessauc, in which Arthur agreed to accept payment of 100 cows in return for the deaths of three of his knights at Ligessauc’s hands. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Teilo was a priest from Llandaff who Arthur appointed as the Archbishop of Dol after Samson, the previous archbishop, left the post. [SaintsCad, GeoffHR]

Teirnon Twrfliant

An Arthurian warrior who ruled Gwent Ys Coed. [Culhwch]


The owner of a magical harp that could play by itself. As one of his tasks, Culhwch had to obtain this harp for Olwen’s wedding feast. [Culhwch]

Teirwaedd (“Three Cities”)

Father of Arthur’s warrior Menw. [Culhwch, Dream]

Teithi the Old

An Arthurian warrior who was the son of Gwynnan. According to the legend, the sea flooded Teithi’s kingdom and he had to flee to Arthur’s court. He was cursed in a manner by which no hilt would remain attached to the blade of his knife. He eventually fell sick and died. [Culhwch]


Father of Arthur’s warrior Madawg. [Culhwch]


A lady at Arthur’s court who was the daughter of Peul. [Culhwch]


An abbey visited by Lancelot, also called the Abbey of the Small Charity. [VulgLanc]


The name given by Wolfram to the order of knights assigned to the Grail Castle and commanded by the Grail King. Although they share the same name as the religious-military order established among the crusaders in the twelfth century, no connection should probably be inferred. In the Alliterative Morte Arthure, a Templar informs Arthur of the abduction of the duchess of Brittany by the giant of Mont St. Michel. [Wolfram, Allit]

Temple of the Sun

The most splendid temple in King Evalach’s Sarras. It contained the Seat of Judgment and was visited by Joseph of Arimathea and his followers. [VulgEst]

Tenebroc [Daneborc, Taneborc, Taneburgh, Tarebron, Tenabroc]

A British city in Chrétien’s Erec at which Arthur called a tournament after the wedding of Erec and Enide. Erec carried the day at the tournament. Wolfram gives the name Clarischanze to the countess of Tenebroc. The name is a French variation of Edinburgh. It was the location of a tournament in the latter days of Arthur’s reign, mentioned in the Vulgate Mort Artu. Lancelot was unable to attend because of a wound. Malory places the same tournament at Camelot or Winchester. [ChretienE, HartmannE, Wolfram, VulgMort]


A city ruled by Duke Bramante, a friend of Tristan and ally of Tristan’s father. [Tavola]


According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, a king of Britain in the first century BC. He was the son of King Lud and the brother of Androgeus. Tenuantius succeeded his uncle, Cassibelaunus, to the throne, having previously been the duke of Cornwall. During his reign, Britain was under Roman rule. Tenuantius was succeeded by his son, Cymbeline. [GeoffHR]


The fairy wife of Mazadan in Wolfram’s Parzival. She and her husband were ancestors of both Perceval and Arthur—through their sons Lazaliez and Brickus, respectively. Terdelaschoye came from the mountain of Feimurgan. In creating this name, Wolfram has reversed the elements of the name Feimurgan de Terdelaschoye, or Morgan le Fay of Terre de la Joie. [Wolfram]


An Arthurian warrior who was the son of Iaen and the brother of Sulyen, Bradwen, Moren, Siawn, and Caradawg. He was related to Arthur. [Culhwch]

Tericam [Tarquin(e), Teriquam, Terrican]

Lord of the Impenetrable Forest (also called Terique) and the Castle of the Thorn. Tericam was a giant, cruel knight who captured and imprisoned many good knights, including Hector and Lionel. His usual routine involved stripping them naked, throwing them into his dungeon, and periodically beating them with thorns. He hated Lancelot, who had killed Tericam’s brother, Caradoc of the Dolorous Tower. Lancelot eventually slew him and freed his prisoners. Tericam’s father is given in one source as Mitrides. [VulgLanc, Palamedes, Livre, Malory, SirLanc]


The forest inhabited by Tericam, a cruel knight slain by Lancelot. [VulgLanc]


A castle. A Duke Conon, who originally owned it, gave it to two giants who had rescued him from a prison. The giants ruled in a cruel and tyrannical manner. Lancelot eventually killed them and became lord of the castle himself. [VulgLanc]


Castle of Terrandes. It belonged first to the evil Godonas and then to Meleranz, Arthur’s nephew. [PleierM]


A land conquered by Meleranz, Arthur’s nephew, from the evil knight Godonas. Meleranz and Tydomie later ruled it as king and queen. Its castle was Terramunt. [PleierM]

Terre de Labur

The country of the sorcerer Clinschor, whose spells cause Gawain some grief in Wolfram’s Parzival. In Floriant et Florete, it is visited by the title characters during their adventures. It refers to Terra di Lavoro in Italy. [Wolfram, Floriant]

Terre Marveile (“Land of Marvels”)

A land in which the Schastel Marveile (Castle of Marvels) was situated. In Wolfram’s Parzival, Gawain braved an adventure at the castle and won the land for himself, an episode that Chrétien de Troyes places in Galloway. Der Pleier names Terre Marveile as Gawain’s castle in Logres. [Wolfram, PleierG]

Terre Salvæsche

The “wild land” in which the Grail Castle, Munsalvæsche, was located in Wolfram’s Parzival. [Wolfram]


An unfortunate knight who was talked into killing himself by the monster Despair. Terwin’s companion, Trevisan, escaped. [Spenser]


A prince of Poitou. His son, Liodarz, was saved from robbers by Arthur’s Sir Tandareis. [PleierT]


A castle in Galehaut’s kingdom. [VulgLanc]


A lady encountered by Tristan and Dinadan in the forest of Cerveroiche. Her father was named Federon the Red. A knight named Pinabel fell in love with her, and her mother made Pinabel kill his own brother, Uriées (who had killed Tessina’s uncle, Garionne) as a condition of marriage. This sparked a war with Pinabel’s other brothers and sister that led to Pinabel’s death and to a death sentence for Tessina. She was captured by Pinabel’s brothers at the Fountain of Valesca. Tristan arrived at the Ancient Tower where Tessina’s sister-in-law, Losanna, intended to execute her. Tristan defended her, slaying the brothers and freeing her. Dinadan, who felt that Tessina was deserving of death, broke with Tristan over this incident. Tessina was later slain at the Castle Crudele, for she was not as beautiful as the castle’s lady. [Tavola]


The King of Phrygia who served the Roman Procurator Lucius, and was called upon to join Lucius in the war against Arthur. He led a force of soldiers at the battle of Soissons. [GeoffHR, Wace, Layamon]


A Saxon king who, under King Aminaduc, fought Arthur’s forces at the battle of Vambieres. [Livre]

Thabronit [Tabronit]

A “city of fabled wealth” in Heathendom that was the capital of Queen Secundille’s country of Tribalibot. It was situated at the base of the Caucasus Mountains. Populated by Moors, it was known for its fine fabrics and horses. Queen Secundille gave throne to Perceval’s half-brother, Feirefiz, out of love. [Wolfram]

Thailais [Tahalais]

Uther Pendragon’s grandfather (and Arthur’s great-grandfather), as given by Prose Lancelot. He ruled the city of Clarence near South Wales, and “Clarence” was thus Arthur’s battle cry. [LancLac, VulgLanc]


A river in south England, flowing east from Gloucestershire, through London, and into the North (Gallic) Sea. The Gay Castle stood on its banks. [VulgLanc]


Daughter of Lot, sister of Gawain, and mother of St. Kentigern in John Major’s chronicle. [Major]

Thanet [Tanet]

An island off the coast of England occupied by Hengist’s Saxon forces during the times of King Vortigern. When the Saxons invaded England, King Vortigern’s son, Vortimer, drove them back to Thanet and defeated many of them in subsequent battles. From here, they fled back to Europe to regroup. In Arthur’s reign, Cheldric and the Saxons fled to Thanet after suffering a crushing defeat at the hand of Cador of Cornwall. [Nennius, GeoffHR, Wace]


A country ruled by Gosengos and governed by Nabunal. [Livre]


A metropolis in the country of Tribalibot, ruled by Queen Secundille (the lover of Perceval’s half-brother Feirefiz). It was known for its fine fabrics, particularly those made by the master weaver Sarant. [Wolfram]

Thebes [Thebay]

A city in Egypt, allied, according to the Alliterative Morte Arthure, to Lucius the Roman. [Allit]


In Claris et Laris, a Roman emperor who demanded tribute from Arthur and invaded France when Arthur refused. Arthur’s forces decimated Thereus’s army—composed of rulers from around Europe, Asia, and Africa—and Thereus fled. He is obviously inspired by Lucius from the chronicles. [Claris]

Thérouanne [Tervanna]

A city in Flanders that served as the final resting place of King Holdin of Flanders after he was killed in the Roman war. [GeoffHR, Wace]


The servant of the lady Fenice, so named because she came from Thessaly in Greece. Thessala had skills at wizardry, and when Fenice—who was engage to be married to Alis, the Emperor of Constantinople and Greece—fell in love with Alis’s nephew Cliges, she turned to Thessala for help. Thessala concocted a potion and had Cliges give it to Alis. The potion caused Alis, each night, to think he was making love to his wife when in fact he was sleeping. In this way, Fenice was able to preserve her virginity for Cliges. Thessala later created another potion that allowed Fenice to feign death and escape from Alis. [ChretienC]

Thiebaut of Winden [Tibaut]

A Slavic knight who was killed by Mabonagrain in the Joy of the Court adventure (which was eventually completed by Erec). [ChretienE]

Thirteen Treasures of Britain

Thirteen magical artifacts mentioned in Welsh manuscripts. Some of them suggest themes in Arthurian literature, though only one names Arthur directly. The list reflects elements of original Celtic tales as well as the influence of medieval romances imported into Wales from the continent. The full list of treasures includes:
· White-Hilt (Drynwyn), the sword belonging to Rhydderch the Generous. It could grant wishes to its bearer. Rhydderch appears as Merlin’s master in Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Vita Merlini.
· The hamper (Mwys) of Gwyddno Long-Shank. It could multiply one man’s meal into enough food for a hundred men. This food-producing ability is shared with other treasures.
· The (drinking) horn of King Bran the Blessed. A man drinking from it would find that it contained any drink that he desired. R. S. Loomis saw this horn as one of the origins of the Grail, and thought that cor benoit (“blessed horn”) was the origin of Corbenic, the Grail castle in the Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal.
· The chariot of Morgan the Wealthy. It could instantly transport its rider to his desired location.
· The halter (kebystr) of Clydno Eiddin, which would produce any horse that its owner desired to ride.
· The knife (kyllell) of Llawfrodedd the Horseman.
· Thecauldron (pair) of Diwrnach the Giant. Meat intended for a brave man would boil in the cauldron, but meat to be fed to a coward would not. The cauldron was thus used to separate heroes from knaves. In Culhwch and Olwen, Arthur sacks Ireland and returns to Britain with the cauldron, full of Ireland’s treasure. This cauldron and others of its kind (appearing in The Spoils of Annwn and Branwen) have been seen as an origin for the Grail, to which Robert de Boron gives the ability to divide the pure from the perfidious.
· The whetstone (hogalen) of Tudwal Tudglyd. A brave man who sharpened his sword on the stone would be able to slay his enemy with one blow, but a coward would get no use from it.
· The coat (pais) of Padarn Red-Coat. It would fit a nobly-born man, but would not fit a churl. This ability is shared by the many magic chastity mantles in Arthurian legend, and it echoes in the name of the Knight with the Ill-Fitting Coat. Padarn’s hagiography contains an Arthruian episode.
· The crock and dish (dysgyl) of Rhygenydd the Cleric. It would produce whatever food its owner desired. This dish has also been suggested as an origin for the Grail, which has a similar ability in the First Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval.
· The gwyddbwyll board of Gwenddolau son of Ceidio. The pieces would play by themselves. Gwyddbwyll is a Welsh game analogous to chess. Peredur encounters an enchanted gwyddbwyll board in his tale, and magic chessboards of this nature appear in Chrétien’s Perceval, the Vulgate Lancelot, and Vostaert’s Roman van Walewein.
· The mantle (llen) of Arthur in Cornwall. When Arthur wore it, he was invisible. This mantle, called Gwenn, also appears in The Dream of Rhonabwy.
Some late manuscripts delete at least one of these treasures and add two additional items:
· The mantle of Tegau Eurfon, which revealed whether a woman was chaste or unchaste. Such mantles are prolific in French and German romances that describe chastity tests.
· The stone and ring of Eluned (Lunete), mentioned in Chrétien de Troyes’s Yvain and the Welsh Owain.


One of the eight sisters of Morgan le Fay, who ruled with Morgan on the island of Avalon. She could apparently play a stringed instrument called a citter, and was popular for it. [GeoffVM]

Thoaris of Orastegentesin

An infidel king who served Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother. [Wolfram]


A knight who fought at the tournament at Noauz, which Lancelot won. [ChretienC]


A lord who hated the Knights of the Round Table. He imprisoned them whenever he found them. Claris and Laris defeated him and sent him to Arthur’s court as a prisoner. [Claris]


A Saxon king from Ireland who participated in the siege of Clarence at the beginning of Arthur’s reign. He was eventually killed by Gawain or by King Ban of Benoic. [VulgMer, Livre, Arthour]


A scribe who served Merlin. [Prophecies]

Tholomer2 the Fugitive [Tolleme]

King of Babylonia in the time of Joseph of Arimathea. He went to war with King Evalach of Sarras, who had once served Tholomer. Tholomer’s brother, Manatur, assisted him in the campaign. Tholomer nearly destroyed Evalach’s kingdom, but Joseph of Arimathea converted Evalach to Christianity and thus provided him with the spiritual strength needed to defeat Tholomer. Tholomer besieged the castle of Evalachin and defeated Evalach there, but Evalach won a victory at La Choine and again at Orcaut, where Tholomer was captured. While in Evalach’s prison, a devil named Selaphas visited him and tricked him into leaping out a window to his death. His name is perhaps a variation of Ptolemy, a name which belonged to a number of Egyptian rulers. [VulgQuest, VulgEst, PostQuest, Malory]

Thomas [Thumas]

A scribe from Toledo who served Arthur. Thomas and three other scribes were charged with recording the exploits of Arthur and his knights. [LancLac, VulgLanc]

Thongceaster [Thangcaster, Thong Castle]

The castle known as Kaercarrei by the Britons. It was later called Vancaster or Lancaster. The Saxon leader Hengist built it as a stronghold in Britain while he was on friendly terms with Vortigern. According to Geoffrey, it was so named because Hengist measured out the foundation of the castle with a leather thong. The town is now called Caister, and is 23 miles NNE of Lincoln. [GeoffHR, Wace]

Thorbush Ford [Aigua Della Spinna, *Gué Espine]

In the Prose Tristan and its adaptations (including Malory’s) we learn that Tristan and Mark first clashed not over Isolde, but over the lovely wife of another knight—Seguarades in Tristan and Malory, and Lambegus in the Italian Tristano Riccardiano. This woman loved Tristan instead of Mark, and she sent for him one night when her husband was away. Mark learned of the summons and intercepted Tristan on the road. The two fought a duel, and Mark lost. Tristan gives the location of this duel as Thornbush Ford, near the lady’s manor. Consequently, Tristano calls her the lady of Thornbush Ford (Aigua Della Spinna), adding that she was a Jewess. Tristan enjoyed a night with the woman, but left her bed stained with blood from the wounds he had received in the battle against Mark. Her husband discovered this evidence and challenged Tristan, but lost. The same woman was later kidnapped from Mark’s court by Sir Bleoberis. In deference to Mark, Tristan delayed rescuing her and thus lost her love. After retrieving her from Bleoberis, Tristan returned her, at her request, to her husband. [ProsTris, TristanoR, Tavola, Malory]

Thorny Valley [*Valle Spinosa]

A terrible valley that not even Tristan or Lancelot would enter. It was dark, and full of beasts and savages. [Tavola]

Three Damsels

A pine tree in the forest of Darnantes where, as a hermit once told Tristan and Kahedins, many adventures could be found. [ProsTris]

Three (Damsels) of the Clear Fountains

Three beautiful maidens residing at Arthur’s court, possibly with some connection to the Clear Fountain of Love. [Contin1]

Three Queens

During Arthur’s coronation in Tennyson’s Idylls, sunlight shining through a stained-glass window falls upon the three queens who, Merlin foretells, will bear Arthur’s body to Avalon after the final battle. Merlin etched their images above a portal at Camelot, which became known as the Gate of the Three Queens. The queens are unnamed by Tennyson, but one of them, traditionally, is Morgan le Fay. [TennIK]


An enchanted island, deep in an unknown sea. The lady-turned-dragon Clidra came from this island, which had marvelously long days in the summer, and extremely short ones in the winter. Some scholars have sought to identify it with the Roman mythological island of Pliny. [UlrichZ]

Tiberias [Taubarie]

A region of Palestine. Its ruler is named as Jonas in Floriant et Florete and Daton in Claris et Laris. Both were enemies of Arthur. [Floriant, Claris]


According to Jacob van Maerlant, a Roman Emperor and father of Vespasian, who freed Joseph of Arimathea from a prison in Jerusalem. The Vulgate stories name him Titus. An Emperor Tiberius I ruled Rome from AD 14 to 37, but six other emperors ruled between Tiberius’s reign and Vespasian’s.


The surname of Lucius the Roman in some chronicles, given as his sole name in Hughes’ The Misfortunes of Arthur. [HughesT]

Tiberius3 Caesar

An Emperor of Rome during Arthur’s reign. Claudas asked him for support in his war against Arthur. [VulgLanc]

Tidogolain [Teandelayn, Teondeleyn]

A dwarf who served Helie, the lady-in-waiting of Queen Esmeree the Blonde of Wales. He accompanied Helie to Arthur’s court to find a champion to remove a curse placed on Esmeree. Helie was furious when Arthur gave her the young, untried Guinglain (Gawain’s son), but Tidogolain encouraged Helie to give him a chance. Tidogolain’s faith was vindicated when Guinglain proved an excellent knight. [Renaut, ChestreLyb]


The ruler of Tintagel in Chrétien de Troyes’s Perceval. He may be identical with Chrétien’s Thiebaut. Tiebaut raised Sir Meliant of Lis, who fought against Tiebaut for Tiebaut’s daughter. Tiebaut, a common name at the time of Chrétien’s writing, appears in Ulrich’s Lanzelet as Tybalt. Wolfram calls him Lyppaut, and Heinrich von dem Türlin calls him Leigamar [ChretienP]


Arthur’s brave and faithful squire in Spenser’s The Faerie Queene. He saved his master’s life at the House of Temperance against Maleger. Wounded while pursuing some evil foresters, he was found and nursed by the beautiful huntress Belphoebe. Timias and Belphoebe fell in love. Later, he and Belphoebe rescued the maiden Amoret from a monster, the Hairy Carl. Amoret was wounded during the rescue and Timias, lamenting her injury, kissed her. Witnessing this, Belphoebe accused him of infidelity and left him. Timias became a hermit and lived a life of asceticism until Belphoebe, satisfied as to his devotion, reconciled with him. In Spenser’s allegory, Timias represents Sir Walter Raleigh. [Spenser]


An elderly knight who, according to Spenser, Merlin appointed as Prince Arthur’s guardian. This role is usually assigned to Antor or Ector. [Spenser]


Father of Lischet, a knight tutored by Gawain. [PleierT]

Tintagel [Luntaguel, Til Tomeil, Tindagel, Tindagol, Tintagil, Tintaguel, Tinta(n)jol, Tintegell, Tintoil, Titomeil, Tyntagel, Tyntagill]

A seaside Cornish castle, ruled by the husband of Igerne, called Duke Gorlois or Duke Hoel (in Arthour and Merlin, Tintagel is the name of the duke himself). When Uther Pendragon sought to steal Igerne, her husband secured her in Tintagel, his strongest castle, while he himself holed up in Dimilioc or Tarabel. Though the castle was nigh impregnable by military effort, Uther received Merlin’s assistance, was changed into the semblance of the Duke, and was able to enter freely. Once inside, he slept with Igerne, begetting Arthur.
   The castle’s fate after the death of the duke is unclear. In the Tristan legends, it is ruled by King Mark. In the time of Mark’s father, Felix, it was besieged and conquered by King Dilianfer of Ireland. After Tristan’s death, Arthur, King Amoroldo of Ireland, and King Governal of Lyoness besieged the castle to capture Mark.
   Rulers of Tintagel in other legends include Aliduc (Geoffrey), Tiebaut (Chrétien’s Perceval), David (Chrétien’s Erec), and Guinlain (Renaut de Bâgé). In Malory, the castle is conquered by two giants who imprisoned women. They were freed when Lancelot killed the giants, reclaiming the castle in Arthur’s name. Tintagel is often given mysterious or supernatural properties. In some legends, it is said to vanish twice a year.
   The actual Castle Tintagel rests on a promontory in northern Cornwall. It is an ideal site for a castle, 250 feet above sea level and connected to the mainland by only a thin strip of land that would have been easily defended. The current version of the castle dates only from the mid-twelfth century, but there is evidence of an earlier structure on the site. Archaeological excavations in the Summer of 1998 produced a stone that may connect the castle with Arthur (see. Tintagel Stone). [GeoffHR, ChretienE, ChretienP, FolieO, HartmannE, Renaut, VulgLanc, VulgMer, ProsTris, Tavola, Malory, TennIK, Topography]

Tintagel Stone

Also known as the “Arthur Stone,” a small slate piece unearthed by archaeologists at the eastern terraces of Tintagel Castle on July 4, 1998. Hailed by one archaeologist as “the find of a lifetime,” the stone holds two inscriptions—one, broken off, is unreadable. The other reads Pater Coliavifcit Artognov: “Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, had this built.” Speculation is that the stone, dating from the sixth century, was once part of a wall but was later used as a drain cover.
   “Artognou,” pronounced “Arthnou,” is similar enough to “Arthur” to be an identical person. At the very least, it shows that the name was known to Britons in the sixth century, and that such as person was associated with Tintagel, where King Arthur was supposedly born. “Coll” probably refers to the semi-legendary King Cole mentioned by Geoffrey of Monmouth.
   At the time of the final draft of this book, this find had only just been announced in English Heritage. Certainly, additional study of the stone and of the Castle Tintagel is mandated.


One of the lands ruled by Uther Pendragon. [Heinrich]

Tiride of Elixodjon

An infidel duke who served Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother. [Wolfram]

Tirre [Torre]

Son of Sir Bernard of Escalot and brother of Lavaine and Elaine. As Tirre was badly wounded on the day of his knighting, Bernard loaned Tirre’s shield to Lancelot to use in a tournament at Camelot. Tirre became angry at Lancelot when Lancelot rejected Elaine’s love. [Malory, TennIK]


A maiden who was a friend of Florete, Sir Floriant’s wife. [Floriant]


A nephew of Lucius the Roman in the Vulgate Merlin. Prior to the Roman War, Arthur sent an envoy to Lucius to discuss possible peace terms. Titilius, who was present, laughed at the Britons’ empty threats. Gawain swiftly beheaded Titilius, and the Roman War was underway. Geoffrey introduces this character as Gaius Quintillianus. [VulgMer]


A Knight of the Round Table in Hartmann’s Erec whose name was probably the source for Wolfram’s Titurel. Hartmann may have taken the name from Tydorel, the hero of a non-Arthurian Breton lay. [HartmannE]


The first Grail King in Wolfram’s Parzival. Wolfram may have adopted the name from Hartmann von Aue’s character. Titurel was Perceval’s great-grandfather. After receiving the Grail under holy circumstances, Titurel became the patriarch of the Grail Family. His son, Frimutel, was also a Grail King but was slain in a joust. His daughter was named Rischoyde. As a youth, Titurel was an adventurous knight. He fell sick with a laming disease and became bedridden in the Grail Castle of Munsalvæsche. Sustained by the Grail, he lived for several generations to advise his family. He was still alive when Perceval became the new Grail King. [Wolfram]


The father of Vespasian, the Roman Emperor who freed Joseph of Arimathea from prison in the Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal. Maerlant calls him Tiberius. In the Third Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval, Titus brings Joseph of Arimathea to Rome. An actual Emperor Titus ruled Rome from AD 79–81, but his reign came after Vespasian’s. [VulgEst]


The King of Merkanie. He refused to allow Gerhart of Riviers to marry his daughter, Sabie, for which Gerhart made war on him. The war was ended by Arthur’s Sir Garel, who defeated Gerhart. In return, Tjofabier pledged his support in Arthur’s war against King Ekunaver of Kanadic. Arthur later made him a Knight of the Round Table. [PleierG]


A knight in the service of Arthur’s Sir Garel. He served as an envoy during Garel’s campaign against King Ekunaver of Kanadic. [PleierG]


A knight who served King Claudas. He led a division of Claudas’s troops in a battle against Arthur. [VulgLanc]


A nobleman at the court of Aurelius Ambrosius. [Birth]


A knight who lodged Tandareis, an Arthurian knight, after the latter was wounded by a pack of robbers. When Tandareis was healed, Todila supplied him with arms and a steed. [PleierT]


One of Lancelot’s kingdoms in Der Pleier’s Garel. [PleierG]


A city in Spain. According to Wolfram, it was the capital of King Kaylet, Perceval’s great-uncle. In the Prose Lancelot, it is the home of Arthur’s scribe Thomas. [Wolfram, LancLac, VulgLanc]


The king of Scotland in Richard Blackmore’s Prince Arthur who joined Octa the Saxon’s war against Arthur. He fought in single combat against Arthur to decide the outcome of the war and was killed. His character and name echo Frollo from Geoffrey’s chronicle. [BlackmoreP]


One of Merlin’s scribes. He had served as one of the pope’s chaplains, and he eventually returned to Rome and became a cardinal. [VitaMer]

Tom a’ Lincoln

The illegitimate son of Arthur and Angellica, daughter of the Earl of London. He was raised by a shepherd. Known as the Red Rose Knight, Tom led a band of outlaws and interacted with knights such as Lancelot and Tristan. Eventually, he came to Arthur’s court and was appointed to the Round Table. He fell in love with Caelia, the Fairy Queen, and had a son named the Fairy Knight. Later, he visited Prester John’s kingdom and fell in love with Prester John’s daughter, Anglitora. Tom and Anglitora had a son called the Black Knight. When she discovered that Tom was a bastard, Anglitora abandoned him, and he was murdered by her new suitor. He appeared to his son as a ghost and bade him to avenge his death. [Johnson]

Tom Thumb

The tiny, adventurous hero whose story appears in the History of Tomb Thumbe (1621), probably written by Richard Johnson. (Tom Thumb was well-known prior to this book; various references appear in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.) On the title page, Tom Thumb is called “King Arthur’s dwarfe.” In the story, he is born when his father, Thomas of the Mountain, Arthur’s ploughman, sends his barren wife to seek Merlin’s help in conceiving a child—any child, “be hee no bigger then my very Thumbe.” Merlin translated Thomas’s request literally. Tom Thumb’s birth was attended by the Queen of the Fairies and her sprites. He grew to manhood in only four minutes. The fairy queen, who became his godmother, later bestowed upon him a hat which taught him all the world’s knowledge, a girdle which allowed him to change his form at will, a ring that turned him invisible, and a pair of shoes that almost instantly took him wherever he wanted to go.
   Tom’s story is full of comical adventures, many of which involve being swallowed—accidentally or deliberately—by various creatures. In one such episode, he was swallowed by a giant, vomited into the ocean, and eaten by a fish, which was caught and served at Arthur’s table. Tom was discovered by Arthur, and he so entertained the king that he was appointed a courtier and endowed with great riches.
   Tom Thumb is also the title character of two parodies by Henry Fielding: Tom Thumb and its revision, The Tragedy of Tragedies. Created by Merlin for Gaffar Thumb and his wife, Tom proved himself a noble giant-slayer, for which Arthur rewarded him by betrothing him to his daughter Huncamunca. For Huncamunca’s love, Tom had to contend with both Lord Grizzle, another suitor, and Queen Dollallolla, who loved Tom. He survived a murder attempt only to be eaten by a cow during his wedding procession. In the original version, his spirit arose but was slain by Grizzle. [Fielding]

Tontamides of Vernaus

A scribe in the service of Arthur. Tontamides and three other scribes were charged with recording the deeds of Arthur and his knights. [LancLac]

Tor1 [Cort, (Es)torz, Thor, Tors]

A Knight of the Round Table whose earliest appearance is in Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s Lanzelet as Torfilaret (“Tor fils Aret,” or Tor son of Ares) a Welsh prince and companion of Lancelot whose wife was proven unfaithful by a magic mantle. Another character named Orphylet may be identical. It is relatively certain that Ulrich took the character from a archetypal French Lancelot tale the formed the basis for Lanzelet. R. S. Loomis speculated that his character originated ultimately with the boar Twrch Trwyth in Welsh legend (Loomis, Romance, 39).
   Prior to the Post-Vulgate Suite du Merlin, the texts name Tor’s father as King Ares. The Suite, which contains the longest account of Tor’s adventures, tells us that King Pellinore fathered Tor on Ares the Cowherd’s wife (making Tor the half-brother of Perceval). Ares, ignorant of this fact, brought Tor before Arthur and asked Arthur to make him a knight. Unlike his twelve brothers in stature and demeanor, Tor had no interest the ways of a laborer. Arthur knighted him, and Merlin revealed his true paternity. His first quest involved the recovery of a white brachet stolen from Arthur’s hall by Sir Abelleus, who Tor eventually beheaded. Arthur appointed him to the Round Table after the battle of the Humber. He was killed fighting Lancelot and his men when Lancelot came to rescue Queen Guinevere from the stake. [ChretienE, UlrichZ, Renaut, Yder, VulgLanc, ProsTris, PostMer, Malory]

Tor2 the Strong

A warrior who served Alexander of Constantinople. With Alexander, he joined Arthur’s service for a brief time, and fought against the traitor Angres of Windsor. [ChretienC]


Hero of a romance by Jacob van Maerlant. Born to King Ydor and Lady Tristouse, he learned that a magic circlet had been stolen from his grandmother, Mariole. He tracked down the thief, named Bruant, but learned that the circlet was in the possession of Bruant’s sister-in-law, Miraude, the most beautiful maiden in the world. She agreed to marry Torec if he could defeat all the Knights of the Round Table. Gawain, Torec’s friend, arranged for all of the other knights to release the girths of their saddles so that they would be defeated at the first blow, and Torec was thus able to defeat all the knights except Arthur. Miraude nonetheless allowed him to marry her, and he ascended his father’s throne. [Maerlant]

Torplain of the green Plain

An Irish knight with whom Lancelot lodged during his adventures in Ireland. Torplain was the brother of the Viscount of Pavengay, whose daughter Lancelot had saved. [Merveil[


In the First Continuation of Chrétien’s Perceval, a half-man, half-boar who was the product of a union between the sorcerer Eliavres and a sow. King Caradoc of Nantes had discovered that Eliavres was having an affair with Caradoc’s wife, and he forced Eliavres to copulate with the pig as punishment. There is probably a connection to Twrch Trwyth of Welsh legend (Bromwich, in Grout, 43). [Contin1]


A race of men who guarded Rigomer castle. They were defeated by Arthur’s knights. [Merveil]


A city in Egypt. Messengers seeking Nascien traveled to Tosqueham, where Joseph of Arimathea visited them in a dream and showed them that Nascien was in a ship in the Greek Sea. [VulgEst]


A beautiful island off the southern coast of Britain. Constantine, Arthur’s grandfather, laid low on the island and trained his army before entering Britain and destroying the barbarian invaders. Later, Totnes was used as a haven for Constantine’s sons—Ambrosius Aurelius and Uther—when they came from Brittany to take Britain from Vortigern. During Arthur’s reign, Colgrim’s Saxons conquered the area in betrayal of a peace treaty they had made with Arthur. [GeoffHR]


A city in south France, on the Garonne river. According to the Alliterative Morte Arthure, it was part of Arthur’s empire. The knight Kay of Estral carried a shield, bridle, and breast-strap made in the city. It was also home of Elias, one of Arthur’s sages. [ChretienC, VulgLanc, Allit]


A region of west central France, conquered for Arthur by Hoel of Brittany. [Layamon, Allit]

Tournament of the Dead Innocence

The “Last Tournament” in Tennyson’s Idylls of the King. As Arthur was away from court, Lancelot was appointed its judge. Disillusioned and bored, Lancelot refused to enforce the rules of the tournament or even the basic customs of chivalry, and the festival was a disaster. Tristan was chosen as the winner and, as the crowning calamity, he refused to award the crown to any of the women in the audience—even though his wife, Isolde of the White Hands, was among them—saying that his true love was not present. The tournament marked the beginning of the rapid downfall of Arthur’s kingdom. [TennIK]

Tournament of the Youth

A tournament held by Arthur in Caerleon after the Grail Quest. It was so named because Arthur withheld his seasoned knights from the lists, allowing his new knights a chance to win glory. Pelleas was declared the victor, and he awarded the circlet to Ettare. [TennIK]

Tower Castle

A castle in King Claudas’s lands, where Claudas organized his armies in preparation for a war against Arthur. Arthur conquered it, and King Bors of Gannes bestowed it on the husband of the Lady of the Lake. [VulgLanc]

Tower of Ambush

The castle belonging to Sir Damas, where Arthur was imprisoned until he agreed to fight Accalon of Gaul. [PostMer]

Tower of Enchantments

In La Tavola Ritonda, the castle owned by the Wise Damsel, who ensnared King Meliadus, Tristan’s father. Meliadus remained in the Tower of Enchantments until his nobles, at the direction of Merlin, rescued him. Many years later, Tristan and Isolde lived there for a time after they fled Mark’s court. Mark eventually stole her back. In the Prose Tristan, it is called the Rock of the Cornishwoman. [Tavola]

Tower of London

A tower made up of several buildings on the Thames River in London. When Mordred, after seizing the throne of Britain, announced his intention to marry Queen Guinevere, she fled to London and secured herself in the Tower of London. Mordred arrived and besieged it, using cannon, but he had to break off the attack to meet the army of King Arthur at Dover. [Malory]

Tower of Marvels [*Tor des Mervelles]

A stronghold constructed by Duke Ganor at the behest of Josephus, son of Joseph of Arimathea. It was built on top of the bodies of heathens who had refused to convert to Christianity and were struck dead. It stood until it was destroyed by Lancelot during a battle against Mordred’s sons. [VulgEst]

Tower of the Dead

A monument built upon the plains of Salisbury to commemorate the final battle between Arthur and Mordred. It was constructed by the Archbishop of Canterbury and Sir Bleoberis, who hung Mordred’s head from it. [PostMort]

Tower of the Fens

The tower where Meleagant imprisoned Lancelot so that Lancelot could not make his scheduled duel with Meleagant at Arthur’s court. However, Meleagant’s sister freed Lancelot. [VulgLanc]

Tower of the Round Pine [*Tour du Pin Rond]

A castle owned by a belligerent lord. It was named after the pine tree that stood outside, where the owner hung his shield. Knights who wanted a fight would strike the shield and summon the lord. The lord was generally victorious, and he hung the shields of those he defeated on the tower’s walls. Palamedes came along, jousted with him, and killed him. [ProsTris]

Towers of Judgment

A pair of towers built on the border of Egypt by Flegetine, Nascien’s wife. The towers marked the tombs of the lord of Karrabel, Faran the Giant, and Nabor—three men killed by God for their sins. [VulgEst]

Trabuchet [Trebuchet, Tribüet]

A noble, masterful, and perhaps magical smith from the town of Cotatre who fashioned the Grail Sword and two knives for the Grail Family. Trabuchet also carved engravings on King Frimutel’s sword. Duke Orguelleus of Lalander had a fine helmet crafted by the smith. Perceval was told that Trabuchet was the only one who could repair the Grail Sword once it shattered in combat. Perceval happened upon Trabuchet’s smithy while seeking someone to extract a nail from his horse’s hoof. Trabuchet repaired the Grail Sword and returned it to Perceval, though he did so reluctantly, as he was fated to die after he had repaired the sword. [ChretienP, Wolfram, Contin3, Contin4]


One of Arthur’s chief huntsmen in Welsh legend. He participated in the hunt for Twrch Trwyth, during which he helped to manage the hound Drudwyn. [Culhwch]

Tracon of Acusborg

An earl who was the father of Elena, the brother of King Odus, and the uncle of Enide, Erec’s wife. [Erex]

Tradelmant1 [Cardelmans, Cradlemont]

The King of North Wales who, with other British kings, rebelled against the young Arthur. His brother was King Belinant of South Wales, and his nephews, Dodinel and Pollidomas, took service with Arthur. Arthur defeated Tradelmant and his allies at Caerleon and Bedegraine, after which a Saxon invasion forced the rebellious kings to abandon their revolt and return to their lands. Tradelmant opposed the Saxons at Arundel, Clarence, and other battles. Later, he reconciled with Arthur to expel the invaders, and the Saxons were crushed at Clarence. He further assisted Arthur in the wars against King Rions and Rome. His daughter was loved by Agravain. [VulgLanc, VulgMer, Livre, Malory, Idylls]


Godson of King Tradelmant, after whom he was named. He fought unsuccessfully to win Sir Evadeam’s lady. [VulgMer]


A Knight of the Round Table defeated in a tournament against the Queen’s Knights. [VulgMer]

Traez of Anet

A knight who fought in a tournament between Meliant of Lis and Tiebaut of Tintagel. [ChretienP]

Trahan the Gay

Lord of the Gay Castle and father of Drian the Gay and Melian the Gay. When Lancelot was newly knighted, Trahan was borne to Arthur’s court. His body contained two spearheads, and a piece of a sword was stuck in his head. By extracting these broken weapons from, Lancelot swore to avenge Trahan’s injuries, which had been delivered by a brother of Caradoc of the Dolorous Tower. Lancelot eventually killed Caradoc and his brother—saving Trahan’s sons in the process—but for reasons unconnected to this original oath. [VulgLanc, Livre]


An earl in Arthur’s service. [Layamon]

Traminore Dastrie

A knight-captain in King Mark of Cornwall’s service. He fought against Arthur’s men when Arthur besieged Tintagel. Traminore Dastre was killed in the battle. [Tavola]

Tramondo Ughiere

A servant of Morgan le Fay in La Tavola Ritonda. While taking a magic horn that would expose unchaste ladies to Arthur’s court, he was forced by Lamorat to reroute the item to King Mark of Cornwall. Tramondo appears unnamed in the Prose Tristan and Malory’s Le Morte Darthur. [Tavola]

Translapins of Rivigitas

An infidel king who served Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother. [Wolfram]

Transmaduck [Trsnsmaduc]

A Saxon warrior who fought in the Saxon army against Arthur at the battle of Garlot. His brother was King Gundeflé. [VulgMer]

Trassino the White

Son of the King of North Wales. Tristan defeated Trassino in joust twice. [Tavola]

Traverain [Treverin]

The Count of Traverain, named Libers, was present at the wedding of Erec and Enide. [ChretienE, HartmannE]


A wealthy town near Scotland. The King of Traverses was slain by Agravain at the tournament of Banborc. The Queen of Traverses was the sister of Escanor the Handsome. She captured Sir Girflet, with whom she was in love, and kept him prisoner in Traverses until he agreed to marry her. When she died, Girflet returned to Arthur’s court. [Girart]

Treacherous Castle

A pagan stronghold ruled by Arpian. It had been built by King Galamanascor in Joseph of Arimathea’s time, and it refused to convert to Christianity with the rest of Britain. St. Augustine gave it its name. The castle imprisoned maidens and slew any knight of Arthur, whom Arpian hated. The lady of the Treacherous Castle suffered from a disease and could only be cured by the blood of a virgin princess. Lancelot visited the castle but could not end the custom. When Arpian imprisoned Galahad, Hector, and Meraugis during the Grail Quest, the castle was destroyed by a holy cataclysm. Arthur kept trying to rebuild it but could not. Much later, Charlemagne successfully reconstructed it and erected a statue of Galahad out front. [PostQuest, ProsTris]

Treacerous Pass

The region inhabited by Griffon, an enemy of Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. [VulgLanc]

Trebe [Trebes]

Chief castle and city of King Ban of Benoic, Lancelot’s father. It was situated between the Loire and Arsone Rivers. It was the site of an epic battle in which Arthur, Ban, and Bors fought King Claudas, the king of Gaul, Frollo, and Pontius Anthony. Claudas was defeated, but he returned years later and conquered all of Benoic except Trebe, which was too well defended. King Ban eventually left the city to seek help from Arthur, and his seneschal immediately betrayed him by opening the gates to Claudas. Claudas razed the city and castle. From a hilltop, Ban saw his beloved city burning and died from heartbreak. Claudas restored the castle. It was re-captured by Arthur’s forces just prior to the Grail Quest. [LancLac, VulgLanc, VulgMer]

Tree of Life

According to the Vulgate Queste del Saint Graal, when Eve took the apple from the Tree of Knowledge, she also took one of the tree’s branches. After the expulsion from paradise, she planted the branch, and it grew into a new tree, called the Tree of Life (distinct from the Tree of Life in the book of Genesis that provided eternal life to those who ate its fruit). The Tree of Life, and others grown from its seeds, weathered the great flood and survived until the time of Solomon. Solomon used wood from the Tree of Life to make spindles for the Ship of Solomon, and to create the scabbard for the Sword with the Strange Hangings. The ship and sword eventually came into Galahad’s possession during the Grail Quest. [VulgQuest, VulgEst, PostQuest]


A land whose king, Gediens, was slain by the heathen Verangoz of Sorboreste. The king’s daughter, Dulceflur, asked for a champion from Arthur’s court, and Meleranz, Arthur’s nephew, saved the kingdom. Its capital was Belfortemunt. [PleierM]

Tréguier [Tigel, Striguel]

A city in Brittany ruled by Kimmarcoch, a vassal of King Hoel of Brittany and, consequently, of King Arthur. [GeoffHR, Wace, Layamon]

Tremonous [Tremorius]

Archbishop of Caerleon during the reign of Ambrosius. When Ambrosius sought to build a monument to fallen British warriors, Tremonous suggested that he seek out Merlin to accomplish the task. [GeoffHR]

Trent River

A river in central England. In the Alliterative Morte Arthure, it was the site of the climactic battle between Arthur and Mordred, which other texts place at Salisbury or Camlann. According to Malory, in the early days of King Arthur’s reign, most of his enemies lay north of the Trent River. Sir Brastias was appointed warden and was given the job of watching over this area. [Allit, Malory]


Daughter of Sir Guengasoain. Gawain killed her father to avenge the death of Sir Raguidel, and he therefore had the right to marry Trevilonete. Gawain saw that she was in love with Yder, and relinquished his claim, allowing Yder and Trevilonete to marry. [Vengeance]


A knight encountered by the Red Cross Knight with a rope around his neck. A monster called Despair had convinced Trevisan’s companion, Terwin, to kill himself, and was in the process of doing the same to Trevisan when Trevisan fled. Trevisan led the Red Cross Knight to Despair’s cave. [Spenser]


Perceval’s maternal uncle in Wolfram’s Parzival. He is unnamed in Chrétien’s Perceval, but he corresponds to the Hermit King of Chrétien’s continuators. A member of the Grail Family, Trevrizent was the son of Frimutel and the brother of Anfortas, Herzeloyde, Schoysiane, and Repanse de Schoye. As a youth, he had dozens of adventures in exotic kingdoms. After Anfortas received his debilitating wound, Trevrizent retired to a hermitage at the Fontane la Salvæsche where he lived in humble penance. Perceval encountered him there and Trevrizent served as his tutor, educating him on the ways of the Grail and of God. When Anfortas was healed, Trevrizent returned to the Grail Castle to live out his days. [Wolfram]


A vavasor and friend of Sir Lamorat. He lodged Tristan and Lamorat after they had been wounded at the castle Crudele. [Tavola]

Trial Castle [*Chasteaux del Asai]

One of several heathen castles converted to Christianity by Perceval. Its residents worshipped a Copper Tower, which was full of demons. Perceval cast down the tower and drove the castle’s residents out of the castle. Those who refused to convert where smashed with a magic axe as they exited the castle’s gates. [Perlesvaus]

Triamour1 [Triamore, Tryamour(e)]

Daughter of the king of Oléron or Avalon. She was an exceedingly beautiful, rich, and mysterious lady that an impoverished Sir Lanval met in a forest. Two of Triamour’s ladies brought Lanval to her pavilion, and he immediately fell in love with her. In exchange for his love, Triamour gave Lanval her horse, Blaunchard, her servant, Gyfre, a magical purse which was never empty, a suit of armor, a banner, and an enchantment which ensured that he would never be harmed in joust or duel. In return, Lanval had to agree to forsake all other women, and to keep silent about their relationship. After seven years, Lanval revealed her existence to Guinevere, who had tried to seduce him. Lanval claimed that Triamour’s ugliest servant was more beautiful than Guinevere. At this, all of Lanval’s enchantments disappeared. Arthur put Lanval on trial to prove his ridiculous claim, but Lanval was unable to find Triamour. Just as the jury was preparing to order Lanval’s execution, Triamour appeared and proved Lanval’s boast. Before departing with Lanval to her father’s paradisiacal island, Triamour blinded Guinevere. [MarieL, ChestreLvl, Johnson]


King of Wales in the Middle-English Sir Tristrem. He was attacked by the giant Urgan, who wanted to marry Triamour’s daughter, Blancheflor. Tristan assisted Triamour by slaying the giant, which Triamour rewarded by giving Tristan a dog named Petitcrieu. He is called Gilan in Gottfried von Strassburg’s version. [SirTris]


A Knight of the Round Table who was a companion of Tom a’ Lincoln, Arthur’s illegitimate son. [Johnson]


A heathen country identified by Wolfram von Eschenbach as India. However, its capital, Thabronit, was said to lie at the base of the Caucasus Mountains. The country was ruled by Queen Secundille. She loved Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother, and eventually gave him the kingdom. A race of half-men with the features of boars were said to live in the country. Cundrie the Sorceress (the Grail Maiden) and her brother Malcreatiure were two of this race. [Wolfram]

Tribuit [Trat(h) Tre(u)roit]

A river in Britain that, in Nennius, was the site of Arthur’s tenth battle against the Saxons. As in all of Arthur’s twelve battles, Arthur was victorious. Nennius may have intended the river Ribroit in Somersetshire or the river Ribble in Lancashire. A Welsh poem alludes to a fight at a river called Tryfrwyd, which may be identical. [Nennius]

Tridan [Triadan]

A knight from the Hedged Manor defeated in combat by Yvain during the latter’s quest to slay Malduit the Giant. As a condition of Tridan’s surrender, Yvain forced him to deliver a challenge to Malduit. [VulgLanc]

Tridanz of Tinodonte

An infidel king who served Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother. [Wolfram]

Trincardo the Mad

Father of Losanna of the Ancient Tower, a lady who once wronged Tristan. His other children were Pinabel and Uriées. [Tavola]


Son of Neued and father of Gwynn. A resident of Aber Deu Gleddyf, Tringad directed Arthur and his warriors to Rhymhi, a dog that they were seeking. [Culhwch]


A city or land ruled under Arthur by Count Herman, who was slain in the Roman War. [VulgMer]

Tristan1 [Drust(anus), Drystan, Thisterum, Thistronn, Thristrum, Tistram, Tristan(o)(s), Trist(r)an(t), Tristanz, Trist(r)em, Tristen(z), Trist(e)ram, Tristum, Tryshchane, Trystan]

Legendary nephew of King Mark of Cornwall and lover of Mark’s wife, Isolde. His life is defined by the tragedy of the love triangle, which eventually caused the lovers’ deaths. Though his legend likely originated outside the Arthurian saga, his story was soon grafted onto the Arthurian cycle, and he is often given as a Knight of the Round Table.
   We have two possible origins of his name. A sixth century stone in Cornwall marks the grave of a certain Drustanus, son of Cunomorous. In Wrmonoc’s Life of St. Paul Aurelian, Cunomorous is identified with King Mark of Cornwall. Nothing else is stated on the tombstone, and if this Drustanus is truly the origin of Tristan, then it is unknown how much of the Tristan story may be related to Drustanus’s actual life. Certainly, the transference of Mark from Tristan’s father to his uncle represents a major variation from fact. It is interesting to note, however, that in a Welsh Triad (in which Tristan stops Arthur from stealing one of Mark’s swine), Drystan is called the son of March, a variation that occurs nowhere else.
   The second possible historical origin concerns a certain Drust, son of King Talorc of the Picts, who ruled in Scotland in the late eighth century. In early Welsh Arthurian texts, Tristan is known as Drystan, son of Tallwch. “Drust” appears in a tenth-century (non-Arthurian) Irish tale called The Wooing of Emer, in which Drust’s adventures at the court of the king of the Hebrides parallel Tristan’s deeds in Ireland in the early Tristan tales.
   Whether we are to find Tristan’s origins in Drust or Drustanus, neither the Cornish stone nor the early Welsh tales mention the tragic love affair which defines Tristan’s life in his saga. This theme may originate in the ninth century Irish tale of Diarmaid and Grainne: Diarmaid, the nephew of the Irish chief Finn, falls in love with Grainne, Finn’s wife, due to the effects of a spell. Diarmaid and Grainne flee Finn’s court and soon become lovers. Whether this story had a direct influence on the Tristan legend, or whether they both sprang from a common source, is uncertain.
   The Tristan legend shows its development throughout Britain and Brittany, becoming a mélange of themes found in Welsh, Cornish, Breton, Arabian, and even Oriental folklore. Sometime during the early twelfth century, it appears that a French writer produced an archetypal verse Tristan romance that has since been lost. This Tristan prototype became the basis for the French verse Tristans of Thomas of England and Béroul, and the Middle High German Tristrant of Eilhart von Oberge, all of which were written in the late twelfth or very early thirteenth century. Chrétien de Troyes apparently also produced a Tristan tale which no longer exists. The early collection of Tristan tales can be divided into two branches: the realistic, courtly version written by Thomas and followed by Gottfried von Strassburg, the Norse Tristrams Saga Ok Ísöndar, and the Middle-English Sir Tristrem; and the violent, supernatural version represented by Béroul and Eilhart von Oberge. Though stylistic differences separate each of these tales, the text itself follows a relatively consistent story:
   Tristan was born to King Rivalin or Rouland of Parmenie and to Blancheflor, the sister of King Mark. His mother died giving birth to him, and his father died in his infancy or youth. He was raised by Rual, his father’s steward, but was kidnapped by merchants as a child. He eventually made his way to Cornwall, where he dazzled King Mark’s court with his skill at hunting and music. Rual, who had been searching for Tristan since his abduction, came to Mark’s court and was joyously reunited with his ward. Mark (presented in the early tales as a noble king) learned that Tristan was his nephew.
   Mark was bound to pay an annual tribute to a giant named Morholt from Ireland. Tristan offered to duel Morholt as Mark’s champion, and Mark reluctantly agreed. Tristan killed Morholt, leaving a piece of his sword in Morholt’s skull. Having received a poisoned wound himself, Tristan fell ill and eventually departed Cornwall to seek a cure. Arriving in Ireland, he called himself “Tantrist” to disguise his identity as Morholt’s killer. Isolde, the daughter of the king of Ireland, cured him. In return, Tristan killed a dragon that had been plaguing the king. Isolde soon discovered Tristan’s true identity when the piece of the sword from Morholt’s skull was matched with the broken segment on Tristan’s sword. The king spared Tristan’s life and Tristan returned to Cornwall.
   Some time later, Mark was engaged to Isolde, and Tristan went to Ireland to escort her to Cornwall. On the return voyage, they accidentally drank a love potion intended for Mark and Isolde and fell hopelessly in love. Mark suspected their affair, having been informed by various vassals, but he gave them ever benefit of the doubt. Though Tristan and Isolde were, at various times, tried, exiled, or sentenced to death, they always managed to convince Mark of their innocence and return to his favor. Finally, however, Mark banished Tristan from court.
   Tristan went to Brittany, where he assisted the king or duke against an attacker. Tristan then married Isolde of the White Hands, daughter of the king. Remembering his true lover on his wedding night, he declined to consummate his marriage.
   Tristan was eventually mortally wounded by a poisoned spear (either while assisting Tristan the Dwarf reclaim his kingdom or while helping his brother-in-law, Kahedins, sleep with a married woman). He sent for Mark’s wife to heal his wound, telling the ship’s captain to fly white sails on the return trip if Isolde was aboard, and to fly black sails if she was not. When the ship returned, Tristan asked Isolde of the White Hands the color of the sails. Jealous of his love for the other Isolde, she told him they were black when in fact they were white. Tristan died of sorrow and Isolde, finding her lover dead, perished on top of his body. They were buried side by side. A vine grew from Tristan’s grave and a rose sprung from Isolde’s. The plants intertwined, symbolizing the eternal love of Tristan and Isolde.
   Sprinkled between these early tales are a collection of lays that describe brief encounters between Tristan and Isolde, often with Tristan in disguise. These include Marie de France’s Chevrefueil (Tristan and Isolde meet in secret under a tree, where a vision of an intertwined honeysuckle and hazel parallels their own love), the Folie Tristans of Oxford and Berne (an exiled Tristan visits Marks’s court in the guise of a fool to see Isolde), and the German Tristan als Mönch (Tristan switches identities with a dead knight and, disguised as a monk, attends his own funeral and meets with Isolde). Arthurian elements are slim in these early tales; in the branch of Thomas of England, in fact, his story is set a generation after Arthur’s reign.
   These early romances were eclipsed in the second quarter of the thirteenth century by the French Prose Tristan, which sought to fully integrate the Tristan legend with the Arthurian cycle. Tristan formed the basis of most later Tristan romances, including Malory’s Le Morte Darthur. Tristan changes the name of Tristan’s parents to Meliadus, King of Lyonesse, and Elyabel. As in the early version, his mother died in childbirth, and his father was slain. His tutor, Governal, spirited him to the court of King Faramon of France to hide him from Meliadus’s enemies. After an unfortunate episode in which Faramon’s daughter, Belide, fell in love with Tristan and committed suicide when he did not reciprocate, Tristan returned to Cornwall. His adventures at Mark’s court—including his duel against Morholt, his voyage to Ireland, his love for Isolde, and his marriage to Isolde of the White Hands—proceed much as in the early Tristan romances, only they are interspersed with innumerable adventures in Arthur’s Britain. Notable new elements include his friendship with knights such as Lancelot, Dinadan, and Lamorat, his appointment to the Round Table, his love-hate relationship with Sir Palamedes (who also loved Isolde), his adventures at the Castle of Tears, his period of insanity (caused by his false belief that Kahedins and Isolde were having an affair), and his affair with the wife of Sir Seguarades. The most notable variation from the original legend involves his death which, in most manuscripts of the Prose Tristan, occurs at the hands of King Mark, who has been given a poisoned lance by Morgan le Fay. (Morgan hated Tristan because Tristan had killed Huneson, Morgan’s lover.)
   The Prose Tristan influenced a number of Italian works, including a several cantares, the Tristano Riccardiano (late thirteenth century), the Tristano Panciaticchiano (early fourteenth century), the Tristano Veneto (fourteenth century), La Tavola Ritonda (early fourteenth century), and I Due Tristani (mid-sixteenth century). Adaptations also followed in Slavic (Povest’ o Tryshchane, c. 1580), and Icelandic (Saga af Tristram ok Ísodd, fourteenth century, and Tristrams Kvædi, fifteenth century). While relatively faithful to their sources, we find some notable variations among these texts. In the Icelandic Saga, Tristan, the son of Kalegras and Blezinbly, becomes the king of Spain, and in the Italian I Due Tristani, Tristan and Isolde have two children named Tristan the Younger and Isolde. In the fifteenth century French Ysaïe le Triste, his son is called Ysaie. [TrisStone, MarieC, Thomas, Beroul, Eilhart, Gottfried, TrisMonch, TrisSaga, Triads, ProsTris, Dream, TristanoR, SirTris, TristanoP, SagaTI, Tavola, Ysaie, Malory, DueTris, Povest]

Tristan2 Stone

A seven-foot tall tomb stone located near Fowey in Cornwall. The stone—which has been moved a number of times—bears a sixth-century Latin inscription: “Drustanus lies here, the son of Cunomorus.” “Drustanus” is a form of Tristan, and many scholars have thought to identify Drustanus with the Tristan of legend. The Life of Saint Paul Aurelian connect Cunomorus with Mark by stating that Mark’s full Latin name was Marcus Cunomorus. If these facts are true, history was largely modified by making Mark Tristan’s uncle instead of his father. On the other hand, other evidence suggests that Tristan is actually based on the eighth-century Drust, son of a Pictish King, and not this Drustanus. [Topography]

Tristan3 the Dwarf

A nobleman who lived in a castle by the sea in France. His name was a misnomer; he was in fact a giant. His wife was kidnapped by the evil Estout l’Orgillus of the Castle Fer. He traveled to the Blanche Land to find his famous namesake, and to ask him to help rescue his wife. Tristan agreed, and the two Tristans met Estout and his brothers in combat. They were victorious, but Tristan the Dwarf was killed and Tristan was mortally wounded with a poisoned sword. His counterpart in a Icelandic version is Tristan the Stranger. [Thomas, TrisSaga]

Tristan4 the Stranger

In the Icelandic Saga af Tristram ok Ísodd, the ruler of Jakobsland in Spain. Seven wicked brothers drove him from his land, but his famous namesake, who was king of Spain, helped him to reclaim it, though he received a mortal wound in the process. Tristan the Stranger appears as Tristan the Dwarf in other versions of the legend. [SagaTI]

Tristan5 the Younger

Son of Tristan and Isolde in the Italian I Due Tristani. He was born, along with a sister named Isolde, during Tristan and Isolde’s sojourn at the Castle of Tears. He was raised by foster-parents. Mark, who thought him the son of Isolde of the White Hands, crowned him king of Cornwall. Arthur knighted him and gave him his father’s former Round Table seat. He enjoyed the protection of a sorceress named Sergia. Guinevere and the Queen of the Amazons became infatuated with him, and the latter forced herself upon him with enchantments. He eventually entered the service of King Juan of Castille and married Juan’s daughter, Maria, whom Tristan saved from Moors. [DueTris]

Tristan’s Leap

A stone jutting out from a cliff in Cornwall. After Tristan was caught by King Mark in Isolde’s chambers, Mark decreed that Tristan be burned at the stake. To avoid this, Tristan asked to be allowed one last prayer in a cliff-side chapel. Once inside, he jumped out the window that overlooked the cliff and would have been killed in the fall had it not been broken by the well-placed stone. [Beroul]

Tristerat of Savoy

A lady who sent a magical chastity horn to Arthur’s court. The horn proved all of the ladies at Arthur’s court unfaithful, except for the wife of the king of Spain. [DisIst]


King Urien’s bard. [Triads]


Daughter of King Briant of the Red Island and Mariole. Her mother owned a magic golden circlet and, when it was stolen, Mariole fell into poverty and despair. She cast Tristouse into the sea. Tristouse washed up in the kingdom of King Ydor, whom she married when she came of age. Tristouse and Ydor had a son named Torec, who eventually reclaimed the stolen circlet. Tristouse died shortly after Torec’s marriage to the Miraude. [Maerlant]


A knight who bet Gawain his head that he could bring a better trophy to Queen Guinevere than Gawain could. Troiano delivered a white doe’s head, while Gawain received the head of a great monster from his lover, Pulzella Gaia. Troiano lost the bet, but was apparently not slain by Gawain. [Pulzella]


In Arthour and Merlin, a king who served King Rions and who opposed Arthur at the battle of Aneblayse. His name is a corruption of roi Minadap in the Vulgate Merlin. [Arthour]

Troiman of Gereit

A knight in Arthur’s service. [Stricker]

Troimar lo Mechschin

A Knight of the Round Table. [HartmannE]


The castellan of Cambenic under Duke Escant. He was killed by the Saxon king Salebrun while fighting in Arthur’s forces at the battle of Garlot. [VulgMer]


The original name of Oberon, a dwarf son of Julius Caesar and Morgan le Fay. [Ysaie]


A boar hunted by Arthur and his dog, Cabal, in the country of Buelt. Mentioned by Nennius, the boar is probably to be identified with Twrch Trwyth in Culhwch and Olwen. [Nennius]


The Count of Truerem was present at the tournament at the Castle of Maidens. [Renaut]


Father of Arthur’s warrior Kimbelin. [GeoffHR]


An evil giant known for raping maidens. Guiron the Courteous killed him. [Palamedes]

Tryfan Hill

The resting place of Arthur’s warrior Bedwyr. [WelshSG]


Father of Arthur’s warriors Drudwas and Erdudfyl. [Culhwch]


Arthur, describing his warriors’ exploits in an early Welsh poem, says “They fell by the hundred before Bedwyr the Fine-sinewed on the strand of Tryfrwyd, fighting with Garwlwyd...” This may be an allusion to the battle of Tribuit mentioned by Nennius. [WelshPG]


A Knight of the Round Table. [PleierG]


A castle in a valley where a tournament was held during the Grail Quest between the Count of the Plains and the Lady of Tubele. Bors encountered and battled his brother Lionel at the castle. [VulgQuest]


A land bordering Lothian, which Arthur awarded to Sir Fergus upon completion of Fergus’s quests. [Guillaume]


Father of Arthur’s warrior Enrydreg. [Culhwch]

Tudwal Tudglyd

His whetstone was one of the Thirteen Treasures of Britain.


A wild and savage Irish kingdom that Lancelot had to pass through on his way to Rigomer Castle in Les Merveilles de Rigomer. The King of Tuesmome joined with Arthur’s army to conquer Rigomer castle. Tuesmome perhaps refers to the historic region of Thormond in Ireland (Vesce, 377). [Merveil]


A castle in King Urien’s Garlot. Morgan le Fay built a depository in Tugan, in which she hid a magic book given to her by Merlin. The book prophesied the future, telling of the deaths of Arthur and Gawain, but no one could read the book without perishing. [PostMer]


In Hartmann von Aue’s Erec, the castle where Erec defeated Yder in a Sparrowhawk Tournament and met Enide, his future wife. Tulmein was ruled by Duke Imain. Chrétien de Troyes places these events at Laluth. [HartmannE]

Tumane [Tumange]

The land ruled by count Ritschart in Ulrich’s Lanzelet. The name does not correspond to any known location. [UlrichZ]


King of Armenia who served Emperor Filimenis of Constantinople. He joined Filimenis in a brief war against Arthur. [Floriant]


Gawain’s killer in the Italian La Tavola Ritonda. Turinoro was the count of Cartagina and the brother of the pope. He had been knighted by Lancelot, so when Arthur went to war with Lancelot, Turinoro journeyed to Benoic to help his friend. He encountered Arthur when the king was on the way back to Britain to deal with Mordred’s insurrection. Turinoro and his forces engaged Arthur’s men. Turinoro slew Gawain, but was killed himself in the fighting. [Tavola]


A prince and vassal of Queen Herzeloyde of Wales (Perceval’s mother). Turkentals was killed when the bold Lähelin invaded and conquered Herzeloyde’s lands. [Wolfram]


In the chronicles, Turkey is subject to Rome, and its king, Itarc, joins Lucius’s war against Arthur. In Wirnt von Grafenberg’s Wigalois, Turkey allies with Prince Lion of Namur against Wigalois (Gawain’s son). [Wace, Wirnt, Allit, Malory]

Turnes of Blakamannavellir

A pirate king who attacked and pillaged Spain, forcing King Biring (Tristan’s foster-father) to flee. Turnes kidnapped the young Tristan and sold him as a slave to a band of pirates. The name of his land means “Black Men’s Plains” and probably signifies Africa (Hill, 197). [SagaTI]

Turning Castle [Forbidden Castle]

A tower in the land of the Knight of the Burning Dragon found in Perlesvaus. Supposedly designed by Vergil, it spun around on its axis. Copper archers fired bolts from its battlements. Perceval destroyed all its magic by attacking it, and its people were liberated. Castles that rotate on an axis are a common theme in Celtic literature. Guinebal, Lancelot’s uncle, sets one spinning in the Perilous Forest in the Vulgate Merlin, and another is mentioned in the Livre d’Artus. [Perlesvaus, VulgMer, Livre]

Turning Isle [Turnaunce]

An island visited by the first Nascien. It was composed of the waste left over when God separated the four elements. It contained a deposit of iron. The whole mass settled over a lodestone at the bottom of the ocean and the magnetic force caused it to turn perpetually. After spending some time on the island, Nascien left on the Ship of Solomon. During Arthur’s reign, Merlin imprisoned the daughter of Duke Abinors, an enemy of Uther, on the island. She remained there, guarded by her lover Formis of Arms, until Arthur and Gawain set her free. Merlin’s Tower, which was once inhabited by the wizard, was situated on the island. [VulgQuest, VulgEst, Livre, Malory]


The city of which Arthur’s Sir Owghtreth was lord. [Allit]


An area in France owned by Lancelot. Lancelot made Sir Melyas the earl of Tursan in return for Melyas’s support in the battles against King Arthur. [Malory]


A land ruled by King Amurat and Queen Klarine, whose daughter, Duzabel, was saved from the giant Purdan by Arthur’s Sir Garel. [PleierG]

Tuscany [Tuskane]

A region of central Italy, surrounding Florence, known for its mighty warriors. Emperor Lucius of Rome brought Tuscan soldiers with him when he waged war against King Arthur. Arthur later marched through Tuscany on his way to sack Rome. After Rome fell to Arthur, Arthur returned and captured all of Tuscany. [Allit, Malory]


A kingdom ruled by King Arduano (Armant) in La Tavola Ritonda, analogous to the Delectible Isle in the Prose Tristan. Its capital was Vermiglia. Palamedes came to rule the land after he avenged Arduano’s murder. Palamedes left a knight named Provaldino as regent. [Tavola]

Twelve Peers1

A table in King Brandegorre of Estrangorre’s hall. The twelve knights who performed best at one of Brandegorre’s tournaments could sit at the table. On one occasion, these twelve included Calcas the Short, Sabilor the Hard-Handed, Arfusat the Fat, Sarduc the Blond, Mallias the Thorn, Agoyer the Cruel, Patrides of the Golden Circle, Melidan the Merry, Garengaus the Strong, Malaquin the Welshman, Agricol the Well-Spoken, and the Ugly Hero. These twelve knights swore fealty to Brandegorre’s daughter. [VulgLanc]

Twelve Peers2 of the Gauls

A group of twelve knights who Guerin of Chartres brought to pay homage to Arthur at his coronation feast in Caerleon. They also joined Arthur for the Roman War. Geoffrey’s allusion to the Twelve Peers seems to be an attempt to compare the greatness of Arthur’s court to that of Charlemagne in continental romance. [GeoffHR, Wace]

Twelve Rules of the Round Table

Giovanni Boccaccio’s De Casibus Virorum Illustrium enumerates twelve basic rules that formed the Round Table’s code of honor and service. [Boccaccio]
1. To never lay down arms
2. To seek after wonders
3. When called upon, to defend the rights of the weak with all one’s strength
4. To injure no one
5. Not to attack one another
6. To fight for the safety of one’s friends
7. To give one’s life for one’s country
8. To seek nothing before honor
9. Never to break faith for any reason
10. To practice religion most diligently
11. To grant hospitality to anyone, each according to his ability
12. Whether in honor or disgrace, to make a report with the greatest fidelity to truth to those who keep the annals

Twenty-Four Knights of Arthur’s Court

A list of Arthur’s warriors found in a Welsh manuscript. In the tradition of the Triads, the warriors are separated into eight groups of three. The full list includes Gwalchmei, Drudwas, and Eliwlod as the Golden-Tongued Knights; Bwrt (Bors), Galath (Galahad), and Peredur (Perceval) as the Virgin Knights; Cadwr (Cador), Lanslod (Lancelot), and Ywain (Yvain) as the Knights of Battle; Menw, Trystan (Tristan) and Eiddilig the Dwarf as the Enchanter Knights; Nasiens (Nascien), Medrod (Mordred), and Howel (Hoel) as the Royal Knights; Blaes, Cadog, and Pedrog as the Just Knights; Morfran, Sanddef, and Glewlwyd as the Offensive Knights; and Cynon, Aron, and Llywarch as the Counselor Knights. As with the rest of the Triads, this list betrays some influence of the French romances but also preserves elements from authentic Welsh tradition. [Triads]

Twrch1 (“Boar”)

One of Arthur’s warriors and advisors. He was the son of Peryf. [Culhwch, Dream]


An Arthurian warrior who was the son of Anwas. [Culhwch]

Twrch3 Llawin

A ferocious piglet born to Twrch Trwyth. He was killed by Arthur’s warriors at Mynydd Amanw. [Culhwch]

Twrch4 Trwyth

An Irish king that God turned into a boar as a punishment for his sins. Twrch Trwyth’s father’s name was Taredd. As one of his tasks, Culhwch had to hunt Twrch Trwyth and take a comb and shears from between the boar’s ears. The giant Ysbaddaden had demanded these instruments to groom his hair. Simply killing the boar and taking the items would not suffice, however: Ysbaddaden attached a number of other tasks to this hunt. Culhwch had to hunt the boar with dogs named Drudwyn (who had to be held with a special leash, collar, and chain), Aned, and Aethlem. To be successful in the hunt, Culhwch also had to seek the services of Mabon, Garselid, Cynedyr, Gwynn, Gwilenhin, Bwlch, Cyfwlch, Syfwlch, and, finally, Arthur himself, some of whom had to be mounted on special horses.
   Arthur’s warriors found Twrch Trwyth in Ireland. Twrch Trwyth had seven piglets that acted as his warriors (six of their names are given—Grugyn Silver Bristle, Llwydawg the Killer, Twrch Llawin, Gwys, Banw, and Benwig). For many days and nights, Arthur’s men fought Twrch Trwyth and his piglets. Many of Arthur’s men and, eventually, all of the piglets died. In the course of the many battles, they chased the boar out of Ireland into Wales, through England, and down into Cornwall. Finally, Arthur’s men trapped the boar in a river, and Mabon got a razor from between his ears, while Kyledyr the Wild took the shears. It took several more battles and losses to retrieve the comb. The warriors succeeded in driving Twrch Trwyth into the sea, where he disappeared, never to be seen again.
   It is probably this hunt to which Nennius alludes in the mirabilia section of Historia Brittonum. Nennius says that Arthur and his dog Cabal hunted a boar named Troynt in the country of Buelt. Twrch Trwyth’s name signifies “king’s boar” and the creature is probably identical to Orc Treith of Irish legend (Chambers, 72). Twrch Trwyth may also be the origin of Tortain in a French legend and has even been suggested as the origin of Tor, son of Ares. [Culhwch]


Father of Arthur’s warrior Madawg. [Geraint]


Lancelot’s squire, for a short time, in Ulrich’s Lanzelet. He was the son of Patricius von den Bigen, and the brother of Ade, Lancelot’s temporary girlfriend. He had been reared by Buroin, the duke of the White Lake, and taught the art of arms and knightly sportsmanship. Tybalt agreed to be Lancelot’s squire after Lancelot killed Liniers—Tybalt’s and Ade’s uncle—and took possession of his castle, Limors. Tybalt proved a loyal and faithful squire, serving him well at the tournament at Dyoflê. When Lancelot succumbed to the enchantment at the castle Schatel le Mort (which made Lancelot, temporarily, a coward), however, Tybalt abandoned him in disgust. The name is a variant of Tiebaut, who appears as the Duke of Tintagel in Chrétien de Troyes. [UlrichZ]


The Queen of Karmerie who married Meleranz, Arthur’s nephew. The two met and fell in love when Meleranz was on his way to Arthur’s court, and Meleranz eventually rescued her from a forced marriage to King Libers of Lorgan. Her uncle Malloas, who had supported the marriage to Libers, plotted to strip her of her lands, but he relented when he learned of Meleranz’s pedigree. Tydomie and Meleranz ruled Karmerie and Terrandes, and had a daughter, Olimpia, and two sons, Lazeliez and Medanz. Tydomie’s parents were named Garsidis and Lambore. [PleierM]


A knight who fought on the side of the King with a Hundred Knights during King Mark’s tournament at Lancien. [Contin4]

Tygan Castle

The castle owned by the family of Arthur’s Sir Meriadeuc. It was besieged by Sir Galien, but Gawain joined the defense and killed Galien. [Meriadeuc]


A castle in Genewis (Benoic), Lancelot’s homeland, ruled by the good Duke Aspyol. [UlrichZ]


A knight whose forest upbringing mirrors that of Perceval. Raised by his widowed mother, he departed for Arthur’s court after seeing a knight. His career was punctuated by the retrieval of a white stag’s foot for the daughter of the King of Logres, who had promised her hand to any knight that obtained it. He sustained heavy injuries during a fight with two lions that guarded the foot, but he managed to hand the object to another knight before collapsing. The other knight, assuming that Tyolet had died, represented himself as the victor, but was foiled when Gawain—who had discovered the injured Tyolet—exposed him. Tyolet was then able to marry the King of Logres’s daughter. [Tyolet]


A land ruled by Queen Elamie, who was championed by Wigalois (Gawain’s son). [Wirnt]


One of the eight sisters of Morgan le Fay, who ruled with Morgan on the island of Avalon. [GeoffVM]


A knight whose sister was violated by Gawain in a forest pavilion. Tyrry, his father Gilbert, and his brothers Gyamoure and Brandelis chased Gawain down to avenge the disgrace, but all were defeated by Gawain in combat. [Jeaste]

Copyright Christopher Bruce. All Rights Reserved. Provided here by his kind permission. Layout of book modified to fit the Celtic Twilight format.