Arthurian Name Dictionary


One of Arthur’s courts in the French Huon de Bordeaux. It was the object of a struggle between Arthur and Huon. It is the setting of the adventures in Spenser’s The Faerie Queene—see Fairy Land. [Huon, Spenser]

Fair Guard [*Belle Garde, Belle Regarde]

A castle occupied by Morgan le Fay. She made Alexander the Orphan promise to remain at the castle for a year, intending to keep him as her lover. When the owner of the castle, the Count of the Pass, learned of Morgan’s lecherous activities, he had the castle burned to the ground. To satisfy his promise to stay there, however, Alexander guarded the spot on which the castle had stood for a year. [ProsTris, Prophecies, Malory]

Fair Heath [*Landebele]

A forest in which Agravain tried to rape a maiden but stopped and berated her when he saw that she was covered with scabs. She exacted revenge by giving him the plague, which Gawain eventually cured. [VulgLanc]

Fair Unknown [Biau Desconneü, *Le Bel Inconnu, Lybeaus Desconus, Lybius Disconyus]

In Renaut de Bâgé’s Le Bel Inconnu and its adaptations, the name given to Gawain’s son Guinglain when he came to Arthur’s court, ignorant of his name and paternity. As the “Fair Unknown,” Guinglain completed a number of adventures before his name was revealed to him in the Desolate City. In Robert de Blois’s Beaudous, the true name of the character is Beaudous.
   As a theme, the “Fair Unknown” encompasses the numerous instances in which a knight arrives at Arthur’s court ignorant of—or unwilling to divulge—his own name, generally because he (or his guardian) wishes to win honor through his prowess, and not simply because of his lineage. Typically, the Fair Unknown’s name is revealed to both the hero and the court after the knight is victorious in a series of adventures. The “Fair Unknown” theme occurs in the early tales of Perceval, some of the stories of Lancelot, the Italian romance of Carduino, and in Malory’s tale of Gareth. [Renaut, Contin2, RobertBlo, CantariC, Lybeaus]

Fairies’ Fountain [*Fontaine as Fées]

A fountain visited by Guinevere, Lancelot, Dodines, Kay, and Sagremor. From here, each of the knights departed on an adventure. [VulgLanc]

Fairy Isle

An enigmatic island populated by fairies. The Queen of the Fairy Isle sent a chaplet of magic roses to Gaheris, after he was knighted at Arthur’s court. [VulgLanc]

Fairy Knight

Arthur’s grandson. He was the son of Tom a’ Lincoln and Caelia, the Fairy Queen. [Johnson]

Fairy Land

Realm ruled by the Gloriana the Fairy Queen, and the setting for all the adventures in Spenser’s The Faerie Queene. True to its name, it was characterized by an abundance of fairies, satyrs, fauns, giants, witches, goblins, dragons, monsters, and knights on quests. Prince Arthur, before he learned his lineage and became king of Britain, came to Fairy Land seeking Gloriana. The early rulers of Fairy Land included gods and elves. [Spenser]

Fairy Queen

The title held by Caelia in Tom a Lincolne and Gloriana in The Faerie Queene. [Johnson, Spenser]

Fairy Rock

A town ruled by Orguelleus the Fay. [Atre]


The home of Pulzella Gaia, Gawain’s lover in Italian romance. [Pulzella]

Falconardo the Ready

Lord of the city of Nuscaligi, brother of Federon the Red, and uncle of Tessina. Falconardo’s niece was saved by Tristan. [Tavola]


A knight who served King Mark of Cornwall. He was defeated in joust by Perceval when the latter rescued Tristan from Mark’s prison. [Tavola]

Falerne [Palerne, Salergne, Salerno]

A city in northwest Britain that was the home of Sir Breus the Pitiless. Falerne’s lord fought against the Saxon invasion in the early days of Arthur’s reign. This lord owed allegiance to both the Duke of Cambenic and the King of North Wales. Falerne was caught in the middle when North Wales and Cambenic went to war. [LancLac, VulgLanc, VulgMer]


Count of Dune. Allied to King Madoines, he joined Madoines in battle against Beaudous, Gawain’s son. [RobertBlo]


A plain near Arthur’s castle at Leverzep. [Tavola]


Brother of Sir Breus the Pitiless. He was killed by Galehaut the Brown. [Palamedes]

Falsabre [Fusabre]

A Saxon king who participated in the Saxon invasion of Britain in the early days of Arthur’s reign. He battled King Nentres of Garlot. [VulgMer, Livre]

Falsaron [Fansaron]

A Saxon king who joined King Rions’ invasion of Carmelide at the beginning of Arthur’s reign. He was wounded at the battle of Aneblayse by King Bors of Gannes. [VulgMer, Arthour]

Famagusta [Famacoste]

A city in Cyprus, named in the Alliterative Morte Arthure as the home of Arthur’s Sir Florent. [Allit]


The King of Syria in the time of Joseph of Arimathea. His wife had an affair with another man, and Fanoyel killed him, prompting the brother of the murdered man, King Label of Persia, to declare war. Label was traveling to the war when he met Celidoine, Nascien’s son, and converted to Christianity. [VulgEst]


A knight who convinced Perceval’s cousin, Ysmaine, to sleep with him by promising to marry her. Perceval defeated Faradïen in combat and forced him to keep his promise. [Contin4]

Faram the Black [Pharan]

A Knight of the Round Table related to Erec. He met Galahad in the Uther Pendragon Abbey, where the latter was recuperating from a successful battle against King Mark of Cornwall. As Faram chatted with Galahad, Mark sneaked in and poisoned drinks meant for the two knights. God allowed Galahad to survive, but Faram perished. [PostQuest, ProsTris]

Faramon [Ferramonte, Peremont, Pharamon(d)]

King of France or Gaul who held his land from Uther Pendragon. He may be the same character as Aramont. He is based on a semi-legendary fifth-century Frankish king. According to the French Palamedes, he was born a serf but was freed by his master. He later usurped the French throne, which actually belonged to the lineage of Guiron the Courteous, and became Arthur’s enemy. Tristan, as a youth, took service in his court. (Faramon had been an ally of Tristan’s father, Meliadus). Faramon’s daughter, Belide, fell in love with Tristan and accused him of rape when he rejected her. Faramon prepared to execute Tristan, but eventually learned the truth. He offered his daughter and half his kingdom to Tristan, but Tristan left his court for Cornwall. According to the Serbo-Russian Povest’ o Tryshchane, he later threw a tournament at which Lancelot and Tristan championed a poor woman. They won, and their lady married Faramon’s son. [VulgLanc, Palamedes, ProsTris, Tavola, Malory, Povest]

Faran [Pharien]

A pagan giant from the Foreign Port, slain by Nascien on his way to Britain. [VulgEst]


A heathen giant slain by Arthur’s Sir Galescalain at the battle of Diana Bridge. [Arthour]


A castle, presumably in Wales, to which Vortigern fled after Ambrosius and Arthur defeated his army and slew Hengist. [Thelwall]

Farjelastis of Africa

An infidel duke who served Perceval’s half-brother Feirefiz. [Wolfram]


A sorceress encountered by Arthur on the island of Pamona. She tempted him to carnal lust, but the angel Gabriel visited him and caused him to flee. [BlackmoreK]


A heathen slain by Arthur’s Sir Sagremor in the battle at Diana Bridge. [Arthour]

Faukain of Mt. Esperant

A maid who served Queen Guinevere. [Meriadeuc]


A French king’s son who became the lover of Diana, the Roman goddess. She murdered him for love of another man named Felix. The Lady of the Lake later used Faunus’s tomb to lock up Merlin. [PostMer]


Son of Vortigern and brother of Vortimer, Catigern, and Pascentius. Faustus was Vortigern’s son by Vortigern’s own daughter. He was baptized and raised by Saint Germanus, and he eventually founded a monastery on the banks of the river Riez. [Nennius]


Gawain’s horse in Les Merveilles de Rigomer, from the French word “fauve,” meaning “beast.” Gawain lost the horse when he was robbed and imprisoned at the castle Fors Graviers, but recovered it when he slew Lord Bauduins of Wanglent, who had somehow come into possession of it. The episode mirrors Gawain’s loss and recovery of Gringolet in the Grail romances. [Merveil]

Favel [Faunel]

A Saxon warrior slain by Gareth in a skirmish near Camelot, during the Saxon invasion of Britain. [VulgMer]


A steed owned by Sir Ironside, one of Arthur’s knights in Sir Gawain and the Carle of Carlisle. The name probably derives from French word “fauve,” meaning “beast” (cf. Fauviel). [SyreGaw]


The name of a lady saved from two giants by Erec in the Norse Erex Saga. She appears, unnamed, in Chrétien’s Erec. She was the daughter of Earl Ubbi of Bouderisborg. Her husband, Cadoc of Tabriol, was kidnapped by the giants but was also saved by Erec. [Erex]


The Frisian steed belonging to Arthur’s Sir Florent. [Allit]

Feared Seat [*Sieges Redoutez]

A seat at the Grail Table reserved for Josephus, Joseph of Arimathea’s son. It swallowed up anyone else who sat there. Although analogous to the Round Table’s Perilous Seat, it is distinct from the Perilous Seat at the Grail Table, in which no one could sit. [VulgQuest]

Fearless Keep

A castle in the Kingdom of Damsels, where Queen Flor de Mont was imprisoned by a wicked marshall. Arthur, in his quest to rescue the queen, defeated the Knight of the Passage and the marshall’s standard bearer before the castle. He enjoyed a quick sojourn there before he continued on to the marshall’s Perilous Castle. [ChevPap]

Fearsome Kiss

The adventure achieved by Gawain’s son Guinglain in Renaut’s Le Bel Inconnu. Guinglain accepted the quest at Arthur’s court and, led by Helie, he traveled to the ruined Desolate City (formerly Snowdon) in Wales, where two sorcerers had invaded and turned the queen, Esmeree the Blonde, into a snake. Guinglain had to defeat the two wizards and then endure a kiss from the snake, resisting the urge to cleave the snake in two. After the vile kiss had been delivered, Esmeree the Blonde was restored to her true form and the curse was lifted. An analog is found in Ulrich von Zatzikhoven’s story of Clidra the Fair, and in the Italian tale of Carduino and Beatrice. The theme is relatively common in folklore. [Renaut]

Februe the Brown

A knight defeated by Uther Pendragon during a tournament at the castle of Urbano. [Tavola]

Febus1 [Febusso]

A famous king of France, descended from Clodoveus, who pre-dated Arthur by several generations. He was the son of King Heuderis or Crudens of Gaul. He married Florine and fathered Altan, Niatar, Lannor, Argons, and Siraouc. Guiron the Courteous was his great-grandson. In Palamedes, Sir Breus the Pitiless literally falls into his tomb and learns his story from one of his descendants. A mighty warrior, he had a number of adventures in Logres before he fell in love with the daughter of the king of Northumberland. She at first scorned Febus’s love, and sent him on a series of near-impossible tasks, all of which he completed. He fell sick for love of the maiden, she relented and accepted him, and he died in her arms. [Palamedes, Febusso]


A knight defeated by Sir Guiron at the Perilous Pass, and by Segurant the Brown at Uther Pendragon’s Urbano tournament. He was the son of Galehaut the Brown. Meliadus eventually killed him. [Palamedes, Tavola]


In La Tavola Ritonda, the giant pagan ruler of Dolorous Guard. His father was Carone the Great, and his wife was called Nonfizata. Lancelot conquered the castle by defeating him in combat and slicing off his hand. Federiel surrendered, and Lancelot sent him to Camelot. Federiel journeyed to Mount Nervana, where he found Arthur and his army in the midst of a battle with King Meliadus of Lyonesse. Federiel leapt into the battle and slew ten of Arthur’s men before he was cut down. Dolorous Guard’s original ruler is called Brian of the Isles in the Prose Lancelot. [Tavola]

Federion the Red

In La Tavola Ritonda, a mortally wounded knight who showed up at Arthur’s court just after Lancelot’s knighting. Lancelot accepted the quest to avenge Federion, but he does not complete the quest in the Tavola. Federion’s mother, named Tessina, was later saved by Tristan. A similar knight appears in the Vulgate Lancelot as Melian the Gay. [Tavola]

Federon the Red

Father of Tessina, a lady saved by Tristan. His brother was named Falconardo the Ready, lord of Nuscaligi. [Tavola]


A counselor to King Mark of Cornwall in La Tavola Ritonda. He accused Tristan and Isolde of treason. Mark investigated the accusations, and was fooled into believing them false. He banished Federumgotto from Cornwall. [Tavola]

Feimurgan [Famorgan]

A variation of Morgan le Fay. Wolfram von Eschenbach, in Parzival, reverses the name Morgan le Fay (Feimurgan) of Terre de la Joie to make Terdelaschoye of Feimurgan—in Wolfram, therefore, Feimurgan is Terdelaschoye’s homeland. [Wolfram]


Perceval’s heathen half-brother—the son of Gahmuret and his first wife, Queen Belacane of Zazamanc. Since he had one White and one Black parent, Feirefiz was a pie-bald. Appropriately, his name seems to be a variation of vairs fiz, meaning “partly-colored son” (Loomis, Grail, 217). Feirefiz, being one of the House of Anjou, was a magnificent knight. While Perceval was winning honor and acclaim in Britain, Feirefiz was enjoying a comparable set of adventures in Heathendom, saving lands—such as Janfuse and Thabronit—winning the love of queens—such as Ekuba and Secundille—and assembling an impressive suite of kings, counts, and dukes in his service. In time, he traveled to Britain to find his father, not aware that his father had been dead for some time. He encountered Perceval and the two fought a magnificent, exhausting battle before Perceval’s sword broke, pausing the duel long enough for the two warriors to identify each other and rejoice at their acquaintance. Feirefiz accompanied Perceval to the Grail Castle of Munsalvæsche and was in attendance when Perceval was anointed the Grail King. At the ceremonies, it was discovered that Feirefiz could not see the Grail because he was a heathen; Feirefiz decided to receive baptism so that he might see the Grail and so that he might be worthy to marry the Grail Maiden Repanse de Schoye. After he was Christened, he and Repanse were married. The two departed to rule India, where they had a son—the legendary Prester John. [Wolfram]


Sister of Sir Urry, who accompanied him from land to land until he was finally healed by Lancelot. After the healing, she married Sir Lavaine. [Malory]


Arthur’s sister in La Tavola Ritonda. She married King Andremo the Old of Sobicio. Her daughter, Elyabel, was Tristan’s mother. [Tavola]


The son of a sorceress named Sargia, sent by his mother to serve Tristan’s son, Tristan the Younger. [DueTris]


An enchantress who was the daughter of Lady Felinors. She was served by a dwarf named Canain. She helped Gawain make his horse, Gringolet, take food and water by removing a bag of powder from the horse’s ear. Later, when Gawain was winning a duel against Escanor the Handsome, Felinete compelled Gawain to spare Escanor’s life. [Girart]


Mother of the Lady Felinete. [Girart]


A vassal of Emperor Filimenis of Constantinople. He ruled Antioch in Syria. [Floriant]


The Roman governor of Judea and Syria in the time of Joseph of Arimathea. The Roman Emperor Vespasian, searching for a leprosy cure, charged Felix to find an artifact which had belonged to Christ. As a young knight, King Evalach (later Mordrains) of Sarras served in Felix’s court. [VulgEst]

Felix2 [Felissi, Filicie, Pelis]

In the Prose Tristan, the father of King Mark, whom he preceded as ruler of Cornwall. He also had a son named Pernehan. In Tristan, his daughter, Elyabel, becomes Tristan’s mother, while Italian romance says that Felix was the father of Meliadus, Tristan’s father. Tristan characterizes him as an evil, ruthless ruler who was condemned in the church of Norholt. Italian romance provides an opposite description, calling him a good king. The second son of King Baralis of Cornwall and Lyonesse, Felix became heir to the former when his older brother, Feriando, died as a youth. He was attacked by King Dilianfer of Ireland, who sacked Tintagel, causing Felix to die from heartbreak. [ProsTris, TristanoR, Tavola, Povest]


A Knight of the Round Table who participated in the Grail Quest. [ProsTris]


The pagan Lord of Derudicanoro in the Dark Valley. Tristan and Lancelot came to his fortress during the Grail Quest. Both fought with him and were overwhelmed by his strength. Lancelot was imprisoned while Tristan was left for dead. Upon regaining consciousness, Tristan pursued Fellone into castle Derudicanoro and was able to defeat him by swearing before God that he would not sin again with Isolde. Fellone agreed to be baptized and to swear allegiance to Arthur. [Tavola]

Felon1 Castle

See Treacherous Castle. [ProsTris]

Felon2 of Albarua

A monster knight with an enormous head. Arthur’s Sir Jaufré found him terrorizing the fairyland of Gibel. Jaufré killed him. [Jaufre]

Felon3 of the Guard

An evil knight who ruled the Castle of the Guard. He abducted Sir Gladinel, but Sir Durmart the Welshman, Gladinel’s friend, defeated him and forced him to release his prisoners. [Durmart]

Felot of Listenois

A knight defeated in joust by Arthur’s Sir Marhaus. [Malory]

Feltemour [Feldenak]

In the Alliterative Morte Arthure and Malory, a Roman warrior who, seeking to avenge the death of his comrade Gaius, tried to kill Gawain. Gawain slew him. He is known in the earlier chronicles as Marcellus Mucius. [Allit, Malory]


Heroine of Chrétien de Troyes’s Cliges, endowed with a number of characteristics of Isolde, though Fenice explicitly wishes to avoid Isolde’s fate. The daughter of the Emperor of Germany, Fenice was courted by the Duke of Saxony, but her father agreed to marry her to Alis, the Emperor of Greece and Constantinople. When Alis came to meet her in Cologne, Fenice fell in love with Alis’s nephew, Cliges, who had won fame at Arthur’s court. To preserve her virginity, she had her servant Thessala create a potion to give to Alis. The potion caused Alis to believe that, each night, he was making love to Fenice when in fact he was only dreaming.
   Fenice and Cliges eventually confessed their love for each other and developed a plan: Fenice would fake her own death, and Cliges would retrieve her from her tomb after burial. While Cliges had a special tomb made for the occasion, Thessala concocted another potion which would give Fenice the appearance of death. The potion worked, but three physicians arrived from Salerno who doubted Fenice’s death. They tortured the poor maiden with fire and whips to rouse her, until they were hurled out a high window by a force of Fenice’s lady servants.
   Fenice was buried as planned, and Cliges rescued her. The wounds she had received from the physicians were mended by Thessala. Cliges and Fenice lived together in a tower for some time in bliss, but they were eventually discovered by Alis’s warrior Bertrand. Cliges and Fenice were forced to flee Greece to escape Alis’s wrath. When Alis died, they returned and were crowned emperor and empress of Greece and Constantinople. [ChretienC]


Queen of Ireland in Durmart le Gallois. Sir Durmart fell in love with her after hearing of her great beauty. At the city of Landoc, Durmart won a sparrowhawk tournament and presented the prize to Fenise without knowing her identity. Dumart’s opponent in the tournament, Nogant, later besieged Fenise in her castle at Limerick, but Durmart arrived and saved her. Fenise and Durmart were married. [Durmart]

Fer (“Fire”)

A French castle owned by the evil Estout the Proud, where he kept the kidnapped wife of Tristan the Dwarf until her husband and the other Tristan rescued her. [Thomas]


A count who was a companion of Lord Formis on the Turning Isle. Urien defeated him when Arthur and his knights fought Formis’s knights. [Livre]

Feraunt [Ferawnte, Ferrand]

A Spanish knight in the Roman army that fought against Arthur in the Roman War. Feraunt led a force of soldiers under the Duke of Lorraine. He was slain by Gawain’s soldiers in an ambush. [Allit, Malory]


One of Arthur’s warriors. He was the son of Poch. Taken from the Irish hero named Fergus, he may be the source of the later Arthurian knight Fergus. [Culhwch]


The castle ruled by Abastunagio, son of Galehaut. Abastunagio threw a tournament at Ferelois during the Grail Quest, which Galahad won. Its name is probably a variation of Sorelois, Galehaut’s kingdom. [Tavola]

Fergus1 [Ferguut]

Hero of Guillaume le Clerc’s Fergus. Raised as a peasant plowman by his father, Soumillet, in the coastal region of Pelande, Fergus’s noble blood (from his mother’s side) was stirred by the sight of Arthur’s knights returning from a hunt. Against the wishes of his parents, he departed for Arthur’s court, bearing rusty armor and weapons. At his request, he was knighted by Arthur. Kay sarcastically suggested that, as his first quest, he defeat the fearsome Black Knight, to whom many of Arthur’s knights had fallen. Fergus assumed the quest against Arthur’s wishes. On the way to the Black Mountain, Fergus stayed at the Castle Lidel and fell in love with Lady Galiene of Lothian, the castellan’s niece. Promising to return to her, he set out again. Arriving at the Black Mountain, he defeated the Black Knight and won a magic horn and wimple. These he sent to Arthur, with the Black Knight as his prisoner. He returned to Lidel but found that Galiene had returned to Lothian. Fergus enjoyed more adventures in Scotland, slaying robbers, a pirate crew, and a giant. His most significant quest led him to kill a hag and dragon at the castle Dunostre, thus winning a magical white shield (and later earning the nickname “the Knight with the Fair Shield”). Finally arriving in Lothian, he discovered that Lady Galiene was besieged in Castle Roucebourc. Galiene’s servant, Arundele, asked Fergus champion the castle against the invading king and his nephew, Arthofilaus. Fergus agreed, killed Arthofilaus, and sent the king to Arthur. Arthur called a tournament at Gedeorde, which Fergus won. Afterwards, he was married to Galiene and awarded the lands of Lothian and Tudiele by Arthur. His enfances bear an obvious resemblance to the early stories of Perceval. His name may be adapted from the Welsh character Fercos. [Guillaume, Ferguut]


An earl whose lands were saved from Taulas the Giant by Sir Marhaus. Fergus later became a Knight of the Round Table and a companion of Tristan. He helped effect a reconciliation between Tristan and Isolde after a quarrel. [ProsTris, Malory]


An evil knight who imprisoned Guiron the Courteous and the Good Knight Without Fear after they came to his manor seeking lodging. King Ban of Benoic and King Bors of Gannes rescued them. [Palamedes]


Eldest son of King Baralis of Cornwall and Lyonesse. When he died in childhood, his brother Felix (King Mark’s father) took his place as heir. [Tavola]

Fermoracco della Piemontana

In La Tavola Ritonda, the fortress ruled by Urgan the Hairy, a giant slain by Tristan. [Tavola]

Fernagu [Venegus]

A noble knight who was killed by Mabonagrain while he was attempting the deadly Joy of the Court adventure, which was eventually completed by Erec. [ChretienE]


A village established by Arthur after a herd of 100 cows, which Arthur had wrongfully obtained, were turned into bundles of ferns. The consecration of the town marked the impact of the holy lesson on Arthur. [SaintsCad]


King Vortigern’s father, according to Nennius. A historical figure named Fernvail may have ruled Gwent or Monmouth. [Nennius]

Ferolin of Salonika

One of the noble Byzantine warriors that Alexander brought to Britain from Constantinople. He fought for Arthur in the battle against the traitor Angres of Windsor. [ChretienC]


The husband of the hag Ruel. He was drowned by Sir Flojir, driving Ruel to seek revenge against any knight she saw—one of whom was Wigalois (Gawain’s son). [Wirnt]

Ferragunze the Courtly

Foster-father and teacher of Elyabel, Tristan’s mother and Arthur’s niece in La Tavola Ritonda. Ferragunze claimed that his three virtues were honesty, bravery, and the absence of jealousy of his wife, Verseria. Through a series of amusing tests, Arthur and Meliadus verified these traits. In reward, Meliadus appointed him as viceroy of Sobicio. His ordeal is reminiscent of Baldwin’s in The Avowing of Arthur. [Tavola]


King of North Wales during Uther’s reign, killed at the Urbano tournament by Brunor the Brown. [Tavola]


The steed belonging to Gliglois, Gawain’s squire. [Gliglois]


One of the knights who murdered the Good Knight Without Fear. His companion was Briadan. [Palamedes]


A warrior who, in the service of the Duke of Lorraine, battled Arthur during the Roman War. [Allit]

Feures of Ramide

An Arthurian knight who preferred war to peace. [Heinrich]

Fflam (“Flame”)

Son of Nwyfre, brother of Gwynn, and one of Arthur’s warriors. [Culhwch]

Fflamddwyn (“Flame Bearer”)

A warrior who killed Owain (Yvain) or was killed by Owain. A Welsh Triad tells us that his wife, Bun, was unfaithful. [Triads]


King of Brittany and father of Arthur’s warrior Ysberin. [Culhwch]

Fflewdwr Fflam [Fleudur Flam]

Son of Naw, brother of Gwenwynwyn, and one of Arthur’s warriors. [Culhwch, Dream]


A British city, once inhabited or visited by Arthur’s chief gatekeeper Glewlwyd. [Culhwch]


A non-Arthurian Celtic hero who becomes one of Arthur’s warriors in Richard Hole’s Arthur. [Hole]


A giantess who married the giant Purdan. Fidegart and Purdan terrorized their lands, slew knights, and imprisoned maidens. They were both finally slain by Arthur’s Sir Garel. [PleierG]


A knight present at the Sorgarda tournament, which Gawain won. [Heinrich]


Alias used by the evil witch Duessa while she was deceiving the Red Cross Knight. [Spenser]

Field of the Lion [*Champ del Lion]

A property between two mountains, owned by Arthur’s knight Meliot of Logres. Meliot allowed his pet lion to roam free in the field. It terrorized passers-by and was finally slain by Clamadoz of the Shadows—for which Meliot later exacted revenge. [Perlesvaus]

Field of the Silks

The location of a tournament attended by Gawain, Lancelot, and Arthur. Arthur won the tournament. [Perlesvaus]

Field of the Tent

The location of a tournament attended by Gawain and Arthur. Gawain won, and his victory allowed him to reclaim the Circle of Gold, which Nabigan of the Rock had stolen from Perceval. [Perlesvaus]

Fiers of Arramis

A knight from Heinrich von dem Türlin’s Diu Crône who bore a griffin’s claw as his symbol. He was engaged to lady Flursensephin of Sorgarda Castle, where Fiers was expected to win a tournament. When Flursensephin quarreled with her little sister Quebeleplus, however, the latter asked Gawain to defeat Fiers. Gawain did so, and compelled Fiers to surrender to the little girl. Essentially the same character appears as Meliant of Lis in Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival. In French, the knight’s first name means “proud.” [Heinrich]


The emperor of Constantinople and Greece who joined Maragoz, ruler of Sicily, in a war against Arthur. During the war, Filimenis’s daughter, Florete, fell in love with Floriant, one of Arthur’s knights. The war ended when Floriant defeated Maragoz in single combat. Floriant and Florete wed. Filimenis left his lands to his son-in-law. [Floriant]


The fair, well-mannered sister of King Guivret the Small, Sir Erec’s diminutive friend. Filledamor led an idyllic life with her sister Guenteflur in Guivret’s city of Penefrec. [HartmannE]


A lady at Arthur’s court. As the beloved of Sir Gales, Filleduch, along with the other court ladies, failed a chastity chest. [Heinrich]

Filones of Hiberborticon

An infidel count who owed his allegiance to Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother. [Wolfram]

Fimbeus [Finbeus]

The lord of Sardin in the country of Angiez. He was married to a goddess named Giramphiel, who had Lady Fortune supply him with a special belt. This belt, garnished with enchanted stones, made its wearer not only strong and brave, but also handsome and charming. During a visit to Arthur’s court, Fimbeus lent the belt to Queen Guinevere, who coveted it so much that she ordered Gawain to fight Fimbeus for it. Gawain reluctantly complied, and won. Giramphiel later managed to steal from Gawain the stone that was the source of the belt’s power. She returned it to Fimbeus. Gawain embarked on a quest to recover the victory stone for Arthur’s court, the culmination of which brought him to Sardin, where he again defeated Fimbeus, recaptured the stone, and obtained Fimbeus’s fealty. [Heinrich]

Finc of Seminis

A knight present at the tournament of Sorgarda, which was won by Gawain. [Heinrich]


A seaside castle in Ireland, near castle Rigomer. Lancelot defeated Buticostiaus, its lord, in combat. [Merveil]


The Irish counterpart of King Mark of Cornwall in a legend known as Diarmaid and Grainne. His nephew, Diarmaid, and his wife, Grainne, fell in love, eloped, and began an affair.

Finoés of the Mountain

Son of the mighty Lyanor of the Mountain. He fought with his father—neither knowing the other’s identity—and was killed. [Palamedes]

Fir Forest [*Sapine]

A castle in northwestern Britain, passed by Gawain and his brothers on their way to battle the Saxons in Scotland. [VulgMer]

First Conquered King [*Roi Premier Conquis]

A vassal of Galehaut. He fought in the battles against Arthur before Galehaut and Arthur made peace. Lancelot defeated him in combat. The First Conquered King was so named because he was the first of many kings whose lands (the Borders of Galone) Galehaut conquered. The Vulgate Merlin gives him the proper name of Cleolas. [LancLac, VulgLanc, Livre]

Firus Bahandin

An Arabian potentate who, along with two others, challenged Arthur to a tournament at Baghdad in Babylon. This tournament is recounted by Gawain in Heinrich’s Diu Crône. [Heinrich]


A monster slain by Arthur in Le Chevalier du Papegau. It lived in the sea. It’s armor, helmet, shield, horse, and sword were all part of its natural body. It had been terrorizing the Lady of the Blonde Hair of the Amorous City, and she summoned Arthur’s help. A violent sea storm followed the Fish-Knight’s death. [ChevPap]

Fisher King [*Roi Pescheor]

The keeper of the Grail, sometimes called the Rich Fisher or Angler, generally identical to the Grail King. Chrétien de Troyes’s Perceval, the first text to mention him, tells of a wound in the thighs or groin that left him infirm and infertile. According to Chrétien and most other writers, the Fisher King received the wound in battle, but in certain variations wound results from the Fisher King fooling around with the broken Grail Sword, which had killed his brother Goondesert (third continuation of Chrétien); or from a battle against the Hags of Gloucester (Peredur); or from the Fisher King’s disbelieving the Grail (Livre d’Artus); or from Perceval’s failure to ask the Grail Question (Perlesvaus); or from Perceval sitting in the Round Table’s Perilous Seat (Didot-Perceval). In any event, this injury made him unable to engage in any sport except fishing; hence, his name. In the Robert de Boron Grail romances, and their adaptations, the king is called the “Rich Fisher” because he caught a single fish that fed thousands at the Grail Table. This man later became keeper of the Grail, and successive Grail Kings inherited the nickname. The Livre d’Artus reverts to the original explanation of the name.
   As to his true name, the stories differ greatly: Chrétien does not bestow a proper name on him; the author of Perlesvaus calls him Messois; Wolfram von Eschenbach names him Anfortas; in Robert de Boron’s Joseph, he is called Bron, while in the Vulgate Estoire del Saint Graal, he is Bron’s son, Alain. In the Vulgate romances, the Fisher Kings after Alain include Joshua, Aminadap, Carcelois, Manuel, Lambor, and Pellehan; and in Arthur’s time, the designation belongs to Alain, Pelles, or Pellinore, the three sons of Pellehan. The non-Arthurian Sone de Nausay identifies him with Joseph of Arimathea. Most of the Grail legends describe the Fisher King as the uncle or grandfather of the Grail hero (Perceval or Galahad). He ruled the Grail Castle, called Corbenic in the Vulgate romances.
   In the early tales, the injured Fisher King awaited Perceval’s arrival for healing. To accomplish this, Perceval had to ask the Grail Question, either “Who does the Grail serve?” or “What ails you?” Because of his innocence, Perceval failed to ask the question on his first visit, causing distress, but on his second arrival he successfully cured the king and became the new Grail King himself. In the Vulgate romances, on the other hand, the Fisher King remains king of Corbenic even after the Arthurian knights accomplish the Grail Quest.
   His role is complicated in some romances (including Chrétien) by the existence of a separate Maimed King, usually the Fisher King’s father. In Perceval, both kings suffer from the same malady, while in the Vulgate romances, it seems that the Maimed King alone is injured. In many stories, the Maimed King has been wounded by the Dolorous Stroke.
   The Fisher King may be an derivative of Bran the Blessed, a wounded King of Britain in Welsh texts. Scholars arguing for a Christian origin for the Grail legend have seen the Fisher King as an allegory for Christ, corresponding with the Grail as a symbol of the Eucharist. As some Grail stories link the Fisher King’s health—and particulary, as his wound is often described as occurring in the groin, his sexual potency—with the prosperity of his land, other critics have seen him as a spirit figure in an elaborate fertility myth. [ChretienP, RobertBorJ, Contin1, Contin2, Perlesvaus, Wolfram, VulgLanc, VulgQuest, VulgEst, VulgMer, Livre, PostQuest, Peredur]

Five Kings

Five rulers—the King of Ireland, the King of Denmark, the King of the Valley, the King of Sorelois, and the King of the Distant Isles—who waged war against Arthur after the establishment of the Round Table. Arthur, Gawain, Kay, and Girflet killed all of them at the battle of the Humber River. [PostMer, Malory]


A giant slain by Yvain in the Norse Ivens Saga. He appears in Chrétien’s Yvain as Harpins. “Fjallsharfir” seems to mean “Mountain-Harfir” or “Harfir of the Mountain.” [Ivens]


Seneschal of King Evadain. He fought in Arthur’s ranks against the Saxons at the battle of Carhaix. [VulgMer]

Flanders [Flaundrys]

A country encompassing what is now parts of France and Belgium, across the sea from Britain. In Geoffrey, Arthur conquers it as part of his invasion of Gaul and defeat of Frollo. Later, King Holdin ruled it under Arthur. In the Vulgate Lancelot, he wrestles it from Count Aran, who ruled it under Claudas. A knight named Bloyas came from this region. [GeoffHR, Wace, VulgLanc, Malory]

Flandrin [Flaundreus, Flaundrin(s)]

A knight of Arthur’s court who fought against the rebellious kings and the Saxons. He is variously called “the White,” “the Noble,” and “the Short.” Malory says that he came from the Castle of Ladies. [VulgMer, Arthour, Malory]


A city in Flanders that was the home of Earl Gorgun and his brothers Garse and Jentaneon, who were all knights at Arthur’s court. [Erex]

Flegetine [Fragatine]

The wife of Nascien, mother of Celidoine, and daughter of the King of Midians. Her husband journeyed to Britain to join Joseph of Arimathea; in a dream, he beckoned her to follow him. Taking her servants Corsapin and Elicanor, she joined him there. [VulgEst]


A Welsh forest where Ivor the Huntsman raised Meriadoc, heir to the throne of Wales, and protected him from his murderous uncle, Griffin. After growing up in the forest, Meriadoc was taken to Arthur’s court by Kay. [Historia]

Floating Chessboard

A magic artifact desired by Arthur and sought by Gawain in a Dutch romance. It was owned by King Wonder, who would only relinquish it if Gawain brought him the Sword with Two Rings. This sent Gawain on a long series of interlocking quests, culiminating in his return to Wonder’s court with the sword. Wonder completed the trade, and Gawain returned to Arthur’s court with the Floating Chessboard. [Penninc]


A castle where Lancelot successfully defended the sister of Meleagant, who had been accused of complicity in Meleagant’s death. [VulgLanc]


The king of Alverne on the Green Island, whose land was routinely invaded by a terrible giant named Assiles. Eventually, Assiles destroyed all of Flois’ land except for Effin castle. Flois sent his page Giwanet to Arthur’s court to ask for assistance. It arrived in the form of Gawain, who slew the giant. In reward, Flois offered Gawain his crown, but Gawain refused and embarked for further adventures. [Heinrich]


A knight from Belamunt who killed Feroz, the husband of Ruel the hag. [Wirnt]

Flor1 de Lis

A maiden who served Morgan le Fay. When Morgan kidnapped the child of Lord Berengier and extorted Berengier’s love, Flor de Lis offered to help Berengier and his child escape, provided Berengier would marry her. Berengier agreed, and the three of them fled to Berengier’s land of Gomeret. [Prophecies]

Flor2 de Mont

Queen of the Kingdom of Damsels, which she inherited from her father, King Beauvoisin. Her father’s wicked steward usurped the kingdom and imprisoned Flor de Mont in the Fearless Keep. One of Flor de Mont’s ladies sought out Arthur, who was disguised as the Knight of the Parrot. Arthur slew the steward at his Perilous Castle and restored Flor de Mont to her throne. [ChevPap]

Flor3 Desiree

Daughter of the Viscount of Pavengay in Ireland. One of the viscount’s brutish neighbors, Lord Savari of Ruiste Valee, intended to take Flor Desiree for his concubine, but Lancelot—who happened to lodge with the viscount on his way to Rigomer—slew Savari and saved Flor Desiree from this fate. Flor Desiree’s birth name was Ingle. [Merveil]


Tristan’s foster-mother, married to Rual li Foitenant. She posed as his real mother during his upbringing in order to shield him from the wrath of Duke Morgan, who had been an enemy of Tristan’s father. She died of unknown circumstances during Tristan’s life. [Gottfried]

Florant of Itolac

A knight who served Duchess Orgeluse of Logres. He was titled “the Turkoyt,” the meaning of which is uncertain. Like his companion Lischois Gwelljus, he frequented the area around the Castle of Marvels and fought knights to test their worth. Gawain was one of the few knights to defeat him, which helped Gawain to win Orgeluse’s love. Florant married Gawain’s mother, Sangive. [Wolfram]


A castle in Karmerie, ruled by Lady Tydomie, who married Arthur’s nephew Meleranz. [PleierM]


The sister of Duke Eskilabon of Belamunt. All knights who desired her had to contend with Eskilabon and were invariably defeated and imprisoned—until Arthur’s Sir Garel conquered Eskilabon and ended the custom. Garel seemed to engage himself to Flordiane, but he later married Queen Laudamie of Averre. [PleierG]


Heroine of Der Pleier’s Tandareis and Flordibel. The daughter of the King of India, she was sent to Arthur’s court as a child to serve Guinevere. Sure that she would never love a man willingly, she asked Arthur for his promise to slay any man who succeeded in winning her love. Over the next ten years, however, she fell deeply in love with one of her servants: a page named Tandareis. Fearing Arthur’s vow, the two lovers fled court for Tandareis’s home castle of Tandernas, which Arthur subsequently besieged. Peace was reached, but on the condition that Tandareis leave for foreign lands until he could prove his honor. Despondent, Flordibel returned to Arthur’s court and waited. After he had won fame through a series of adventures, Arthur invited Tandareis back to court, and he and Flordibel were wed. She became Queen of Malmontan and Mermin, two kingdoms that Tandareis had conquered. [PleierT]


A lady kidnapped by Sir Caradoc of the Dolorous Tower. Caradoc also kidnapped Guinevere. When Gawain came to rescue Guinevere, Floree gave him Caradoc’s sword—the only weapon which could kill the giant knight. Caradoc died cursing her name.


Daughter of King Alain of Escavalon. She was loved by Guinganbresil, one of her father’s knights. While traveling through the forest of Breckham, a group of Saxons siezed her, but Gawain rescued her. Later, Gawain stayed at the Castle Brion (which belonged to Alain), slept with Florée, and begot an unnamed son. Florée later married Meliant of Lis. [Livre]


A cousin and friend of Princess Hermondine of Scotland. She organized five tournaments to find Hermondine a husband, which produced Arthur’s Sir Meliador. Agravain wooed and won her during a tournament at Camelot. [Froissart]


Seneschal of King Lac of Great Orkney. He joined Arthur’s forces against the Saxons at the battles of Clarence and Vambieres. [Livre]


One of Gawain’s sons in Malory. His mother was the sister of Sir Brandelis. A Knight of the Round Table, he was one of the twelve knights who sought to catch Lancelot and Guinevere in an act of treason. Lancelot killed him and his compatriots in the attempt. [Malory]


An Arthurian knight from France who participated in the Roman War. During a mission to procure supplies in northern Italy, Florent and Gawain learned of a nearby Roman brigade, led by the Duke of Lorraine. With only a small force of seven hundred, Gawain and Florent managed to rout the Romans, who numbered in the thousands. Florent also led a battalion at the final battle at Soissons. [Allit, Malory]


A great sword wielded by Sir Lionel, a cousin of Lancelot. [Allit]


Father of Isolde of the White Hands in the Middle-English Sir Tristrem. His counterpart in most of the Tristan romances is Hoel. [SirTris]


The constable of Cardigan. He joined Arthur’s early wars against the Saxons. [Livre]

Flores [Floire]

A duke from France—perhaps an ally or vassal of Arthur—who fought in a tournament at the Castle of Maidens and was defeated by King Angusel of Scotland. [Renaut]


Daughter of Emperor Filimenis of Constantinople. She fell in love with Floriant, one of Arthur’s knights, during a war between Filimenis and Arthur. She defected from her father’s camp to be with Floriant. At the end of the war, the lovers were married and Florete became Queen of Sicily. They had a son named Froart. Florete accompanied her husband on several adventures and helped him to kill a dragon. When her father died, Floriant and Florete became the rulers of Greece and Constantinople. At the end of their lives, the joined Morgan le Fay (Floriant’s foster-mother) in her otherworldly castle. [Floriant]


Guinevere’s sister in Heinrich von dem Türlin’s Diu Crône. Named as Gawain’s sweetheart, she (along with the other ladies at Arthur’s court) failed in a chastity test. She had another sister named Lenomie of Alexandria. [Heinrich]


A knight, briefly of Arthur’s court, who is the hero of the thirteenth century French romance Floriant et Florete. His father, King Eliadus of Sicily, was murdred by a treacherous seneschal, Maragoz, while Floriant was still in his mother’s womb. Floriant’s mother, fleeing from Maragoz, gave birth to Floriant in a forest. Morgan le Fay spirited the child to safety and raised him in her castle at Mongibel (an enfances that parallels that of Lancelot). When he came of age, he left Mongibel to seek adventure. He saved Queen Alemandine of the White City from a monster, rescued a collection of Arthur’s knights from the prison of the tyrant Moradas, killed some giants, and had several other adventures, culminating in his victory at a tournament at Arthur’s court. Eventually, he learned that his mother was still under siege from Maragoz, and he convinced Arthur to assist in the rescue. Maragoz secured the alliance of Emperor Filimenis of Constantinople. The armies met in Sicily. Floriant fell in love with Florete, Filimenis’s daughter. Defeating Maragoz in single combat, Floriant ended the war and saw his father’s murderer executed. Floriant and Florete married, became king and queen of Sicily, and had a son named Froart. Accused of inactivity (like Erec), Floriant abandoned his throne and embarked with his wife on another series of adventures, ending with the rescue of Rome from a Saracen invasion. When Filimenis died, Floriant became Emperor of Constantinople and Greece. At the end of their lives, Floriant and Florete joined Morgan le Fay in her enchanted castle, where Arthur was to be brought after the final battle. [Floriant]


Lord of the Narrow Borderlands. He joined Arthur’s early war against the Saxons. [Livre]


A knight who fought in Arthur’s campaign to take the city of Rome. He accompanied Sir Florence and Gawain on their supply mission which turned into a full battle against a Roman brigade. During the capture of Rome, Sir Floridas led a battalion of soldiers against the Roman armies. [Allit, Malory]


 In Wirnt von Grafenberg’s Wigalois, the wife of Gawain and mother of Wigalois. A Syrian queen, she lived with her uncle Joram, who brought Gawain from Arthur’s court. Gawain fell in love with Florie immediately, and married her. After remaining with her for several months, he left to return to Arthur’s court. When he tried to find his way back to Florie, he lacked a magical belt necessary to enter the land, and was never able to return to her. Florie raised Wigalois virtuously. After he left her to seek adventures, she died from heartbreak at the loss of her husband and son. Her counterpart in Renaut de Bâgé’s The Fair Unknown is Blanchemal. [Wirnt]


The Queen of Kanadic, loved by Ilinot, Arthur’s son. When Ilinot was killed in her service, Florie died of sorrow. Her land was inherited by her sister, Queen Kloudite. [Wolfram, PleierG]

Florie2 of Lunel

A beautiful maiden who served the Grail Family. [Wolfram]


One of Arthur’s knights. [Renaut]


A maid whom Arthur, Britomart, and Guyon saw pursued by a lustful forester. Arthur and Guyon set out to rescue her. During her flight, she sought refuge in the cottage of a witch. The witch’s son tried to rape her, but she escaped. The witch then sent a monster after her, but she eluded it by rowing out into the ocean. The owner of the boat, a fisherman, was asleep in the boat. He awoke and tried to rape Florimell. Her screams brought the assistance of the sea god Proteus, who took her to the bottom of the ocean. When Florimell refused to become Proteus’s mistress, he imprisoned her. She was freed from the prison by her true love, Marinell, and was joyously united with him.
   The witch’s monster had taken Florimell’s girdle, which the witch used to create a “False Flormiell” out of snow. The False Florimell became the amie of the witch’s son, but she was carried away by a peasant named Braggadocchio, who became her “champion.” She caused jealousy and dissention among several knights and friends. She eventually melted when she stood next to the real Florimell. [Spenser]


A lady saved by Tristan the Younger (Tristan’s son) from her cad of a husband. [DueTris]


Great-grandmother of Sir Guiron the Courteous. She was the wife of Febus and the mother of Lannor, Niatar, Altan, Siraouc, and Argons. [Palamedes]


Sister of Palamedes and daughter of Esclabor the Unknown. The Knight of the Castle of Three Roses died for her love. [Palamedes]


A knight captured and imprisoned, along with his brother Alexander, by Eskilabon of Belamunt. He was rescued by his uncle, Gilan, and Arthur’s Sir Garel. In reward, he fought alongside Garel in a war against King Ekunaver of Kanadic. His father was Duke Retan of Pergalt. [PleierG]


A sorceress taught by Merlin who became enamored of Tristan. She sent him wondrous presents, such as a herd of enchanted horses and a crystal tower drawn across the sea by elephants that breathed fire from their eyes. When she was how beautiful Isolde, her competition, was, she threw herself from the tower to her death. [DueTris]


A seaport in Britain where, in the old French Lancelot tales, Lancelot arrived as a young man to be knighted by King Arthur. Suggestions for the location of Floudehueg include Hudan Fleot and Weymouth. [LancLac, VulgLanc]

Flower of Lyonesse

The name by which Merlin, predicting the knight who would free the valley Servage, referred to Sir Tristan. [Palamedes]

Flowers of the Wilderness

A duchy ruled by Duke Ammilot under King Ekunaver, Arthur’s enemy. [PleierG]


A Saracen king in Jerusalem. He was the husband of Subine. Merlin visited him, invisible, and helped him interpret a disturbing dream. Merlin predicted correctly that he would be conquered by Christians, would covert, and would become the grandfather of scores of Christian knights. [VulgMer]


The kingdom ruled by a fairy who married Sir Gauriel. [Konrad]


Perceval’s paternal aunt; daughter of Gandin and Schoette; and sister of Galoes, Gahmuret, and Limmire. Flurdamurs married King Kingrisin of Ascalun and became the mother of King Vergulaht and Antikonie. [Wolfram]


Mother of Isolde and King Engres of Ireland in the Icelandic Saga af Tristram ok Ísodd. She wanted to marry her daughter to Tristan, but Tristan insisted that she marry King Mark. In other romances, she is called Isolde. [SagaTI]


The daughter of King Leigamar of Sorgarda and the beloved of Sir Fiers of Arramis. During a tournament at Sorgarda, she boasted of Fiers’s prowess to Quebeleplus, her younger sister. To humble her sister, Quebeleplus begged Gawain, who was attending the tournament, to defeat Fiers in combat. Gawain complied. Flursenesephin was offered to Gawain, who went on to win the tournament, but Gawain convinced Leigamar to award her to Sir Quoikos, one of Gawain’s comrades. She later failed a chastity test at Arthur’s court. Her counterpart in Wolfram von Eschenbach’s Parzival is named Obie. [Heinrich]


The nickname of Tristan’s foster-father Rual. It signifies “one who keeps faith.” [Gottfried]


A region in France owned by Lancelot. Lancelot made Sir Plenorius the earl of Foix in return for Plenorius’s support in the battles against King Arthur. [Malory]


Arthur’s royal treasurer. During the False Guinevere episode, Sir Daguenet, Arthur’s fool, took over the administration of Arthur’s court. Daguenet depleted the funds in the royal treasury. When Fole reproved Daguenet for overspending, Daguenet killed him. [Prophecies]

Fontane la Salvæsche (“Wild Fountain”)

A forest fountain, next to which Perceval defeated Duke Orilus of Lalander in combat. It was the residence of Perceval’s hermit uncle, Trevrizent, who received and educated Perceval. [Wolfram]


In Henry Fielding’s parody The Tragedy of Tragedies, one of Arthur’s attendants. He joined a rebellion against Arthur led by Lord Grizzle. [Fielding]

Forbidden Hill

A fortress near the Perilous Forest. The Forbidden Hill was established by Sir Eloides, a cruel knight who kidnapped and wed the daughter of Esclamor of the Red City. The Forbidden Hill was her protection, and Eloides killed any knight who tried to approach. His victims were buried in the Small Charity abbey. Eloides was eventually slain by Sir Bors, but not before he extracted a promise from Bors to continue defending the Forbidden Hill. Bors agreed, on the condition that he imprison rather than slay any Knight of the Round Table. Against his will, Bors defeated and imprisoned Gawain, Yvain, and roughly a dozen other Round Table companions, before he was finally defeated—and relieved of his duty—by his cousin Lancelot. [VulgLanc]

Ford of Adventures [*Gué d’Aventures]

The location of a tournament won by Gawain. Gawain received such honor for his victory that the Maiden of the Narrow Passage, who had never seen Gawain, fell in love with him. [Vengeance]

Ford of Blood [*Gués del Sanc]

A ford in Scotland where a relatively small number of Arthur’s men, led by Sir Lancelot, defeated a large force of Saxons and put them to flight. The Saxons were led by King Hargadabran. Lancelot fought like a man possessed in the battle, and Hargadabran’s brother, Atramont, was captured. [LancLac, VulgLanc]

Ford of the Forest [*Aigue de la Forest]

A ford where Bors, after stealing Arthur’s horse, defeated Sagremor, Bedivere, Lucan, and Kay, taking their horses as well. [VulgLanc]

Ford of the Woods

A ford that Sir Garengaus the Strong vowed to guard in the service of King Brandegorre’s daughter. [VulgLanc]


A knight present at the tournament of Sorgarda, which Gawain won. [Heinrich]


A country ruled by the Lord of Serre, who died with no male heir. Inheritance of Forei became the subject of a feud between the Lord’s daughters, Sgoidamur and Amurfina. Gawain eventually decided the conflict in Sgoidamur’s favor. [Heinrich]

Foreign Land [*Terre Forraine]

See Strange Land.

Foreign Port

The home of Faran, a giant slain by Nascien. [VulgEst]

Forest of Adventures

The forest near Cardigan, mentioned by Chrétien, where Arthur’s held his annual hunt for the white stag. The thirteenth-century Lancelot do Lac says that a false report was circulated that Lancelot had been killed in the Forest; this report caused the death of Lancelot’s friend, Galehaut. Another Forest of Adventures, also called Arroy, is mentioned by Malory. [ChretienE, LancLac]

Forest of Brambles [*Forest de l’Espinoie]

A wood by the city of Caranges in Scotland. Gawain, his father Lot, and his brothers Agravain, Gaheris, and Gareth crossed it on the way to fight Saxons in Arestel. [VulgMer]

Forest of Misadventures

A dangerous forest along the Devil’s Road. Arthur’s Duke Galescalain of Clarence transversed the forest on his way to the Valley of No Return. [VulgLanc]

Forest of No Return [*Forest Sans Retour]

A wood called the Perilous Forest until Guinebal (Lancelot’s uncle) fell in love with a local lady and created the Magic Dance, which trapped all passers-by. The lady, called the Wise Lady of the Forest of No Return, was the mother of Agraveil and aunt of Elinadas, two knights in Arthur’s service. The forest was also called the Lost Forest. [VulgMer]

Forest of Serpents

A British forest abundant in snakes. It contained the Giant’s Tower and the Spring of Healing, where Palamedes defeated Sir Atamas and rescued Gawain. In another adventure in the forest, Perceval saved a maiden from Sagremor and the Ugly Hero. [PostQuest]

Forest of Shadows

The home of the Red Knight slain by Perceval. [Perlesvaus]

Forest of the Pine

A wood where Arthur hunted. [Contin1]

Forest of the Three Perils

A forest in Gorre visited by Lancelot during his quest to rescue Guinevere from Meleagant. [VulgLanc]

Formidable Knight [*Outredouté]

An evil knight in Meraugis de Portlesguez and the Livre d’Artus whose evil brother, Greomar, was killed by Sagremor. In response, the Formidable Knight besieged the Castle of Ladies, which Sagremor had taken from Greomar and given to Sir Laudon. Gawain defeated the Formidable Knight and lifted the siege. The Formidable Knight then apparently resumed his custom of attacking ladies and murdering knights. Finally, the Formidable Knight defeated and removed an eye from Sir Laquis of Lampagrés. Meraugis of Portlesguez, Laquis’s friend, tracked the Formidable Knight down and killed him. [Raoul, Livre]

Formis of Arms

A duke who ruled the Turning Isle. Formis and his four knights guarded the lady Abinors, Formis’s lover, who had been imprisoned on the island by Merlin. Arthur, Gawain, Yder, and Urien came to the Turning Isle and defeated Formis and his companions in combat. [Livre]

Fors Graviers

An Irish castle in which Gawain, during his quest to conquer Rigomer castle, was robbed and imprisoned by Lord Gaudionés. After four days, he was freed by Lorie, his fairy girlfriend. [Merveil]


One of Perceval’s eleven paternal uncles in Perlesvaus. He was the ninth son of Gais the Large, the brother of Alain, and the lord of the Crimson Heath. [Perlesvaus]


The rather banal name for the castle owned by the Count of Valigues, whose daughter was championed by Hector. [VulgLanc]

Fortress of Marvels

A British fortress in which Peredur had an adventure. Peredur was lead to the fortress by one of his cousins, who was in the guise of a hag. Upon reaching the fortress, Peredur found it deserted except for an enchanted gwyddbwyll set (a chess-like game) which he threw into a river after it continually defeated him. Peredur’s cousin showed up again in various disguises and eventually pointed him to the Hags of Gloucester, whom Peredur was fated to destroy in revenge for the death of another cousin. A similar event takes place in the Didot-Perceval at Chessboard Castle. [Peredur]


Fortune is often personified as a woman in Arthurian romance; “Lady” Fortune and “Lady” Love are often named as the controllers of knights’ destinies. In Heinrich von dem Türlin’s Diu Crône, however, Lady Fortune appears as a corporeal being. She ruled the land of Ordohorht along with her son, Luck. Gawain visited her splendid palace and found her sitting on a rotating wheel. She provided Gawain with a magic ring that, as long as Arthur wore it, would protect his court from all harm. Her magic also fashioned a belt worn by Sir Fimbeus but later taken by Gawain. She employed a burgrave named Aanzim. [Heinrich]


A castle in Wales where Lancelot slew a knight. [ProsTris]

Foucaire [Forcaire]

A pirate who inhabited the Rock of the Perilous Port. He was slain by Pompey. His former abode was used by Mordrains during an adventure at sea. [VulgEst]


A squire present at King Mark of Cornwall’s tournament at Lancien. [Contin4]

Foul Heathen

A malevolent pagan lord in the Serbo-Russian Povest’ o Tryshchane. He was known to greet cordially any knight who arrived at his island. At night, however, the Foul Heathen would viciously torture him. Tristan learned of these customs and traveled to the Foul Heathen’s island. When the Foul Heathen discovered the identity of his visitor, he did not enforce the custom. Later, he reconsidered, and had his knights seize Tristan, who was unarmed. Palamedes happened by and gave Tristan a sword. The two knights together slew all of the Foul Heathen’s warriors. The Foul Heathen himself escaped by fleeing into a church. [Povest]

Fountain of Adventures

A fountain in the forest of Darnantes. Tristan and Kahedins fought Lamorat next to the fountain. [Tavola]

Fountain of Infertility [*Fontaine Brahaigne]

A magical spring in Logres which sterilized any woman drinking from it. It was once visited by Merlin and Governal. An inscription on the stone foretold a meeting of Galahad, Lancelot, and Tristan at the fountain, where they would see the Questing Beast. [ProsTris]

Fountain of Marvels1 [*Fontaine des Merveilles]

A fountain where Arthur’s Sir Meriadeuc found an enchanted sword. The sword was stained with blood that would not come clean. A knight named Gaus, who languished nearby, had been wounded with the sword and would only heal when struck a second time by the purest of knights. Meriadeuc eventually healed him in this manner, and when he did so, the sword came clean and Meriadeuc found his own name (he had previously been called the Knight with the Two Swords) written on the blade. [Meriadeuc]

Fountain of Marvels2

A magical spring on the Island of the Fountain in the Prose Tristan, identical to the fountain in the forest of Broceliande in Chrétien’s Erec. The Fountain of Marvels was guarded by Pharant, who was killed at the fountain by Tristan. [ProsTris]

Fountain of the Dragon

A fountain in desert of Medilontas in Lyonesse, where Meliadus met a sorceress called Wise Damsel and was kidnapped. The location appears in the Prose Tristan but is not named except in La Tavola Ritonda. Merlin erected a stone by the fountain and prophesied that Lancelot, Tristan, and Galehaut would gather there. [Tavola]

Fountain of the Lion

A Cornish fountain that was the site of several unfortunate episodes involving Tristan’s family. The fountain was named after Cichoriades, an ancestor of Tristan, saw a lion dive into the fountain and emerge dry. The Fountain of the Lion was the site where King Mark of Cornwall murdered his brother Pernehan; where Tristan killed his cousin Archeman; where Mark abandoned his infant son Meraugis; and where Lancelot fought Bleoberis. [ProsTris, TristanoR]

Fountain of the Pine

A spring where Calinan, son of Guiron the Courteous, defeated several of Arthur’s knights. Shortly afterwards, Calinan was killed by Palamedes. [Palamedes]

Fountain of the Shade

A Cornish fountain where Tristan dueled the King with a Hundred Knights. [ProsTris]

Fountain of the Stag

A spring in Cornwall that was often visited by Isolde. [ProsTris]

Fountain of the Youth

During a speech in Heinrich von dem Türlin’s Diu Crône, Gawain alludes to an adventure in which he drank from the Fountain of Youth in the garden of Dochel. [Heinrich]

Four Beards

The nickname of Bruant, a king who served Arthur. [Meriadeuc]


Father of Guiron the Courteous. He was the son of Argons and the grandson of Febus. [Palamedes]


A heathen warrior who fought against King Angusel of Scotland in the battle of Caranges. [Arthour]

France [Francia, Fraunce, Frauns]

France becomes the playing field for a number of important events in Arthurian romance. In most legends, France is used synonymously with Gaul.
   Before Rome subjugated Gaul in the first century BC, France was a collection of independent territories ruled by Celtic clans. There were literally hundreds of different tribes of varying origins. The lack of a Gaulish “high king,” or centralized ruler, was to Rome’s advantage. Caesar oversaw the conquest of France in 58 BC. Rome ruled France for the next 500 years, building a vast infrastructure and protecting the territory from barbarian invasions.
   With the collapse of the Roman empire in the fifth century came legions of Frankish, Gothic, and Burgundian invaders. France was splintered, united, and splintered again.
   During the Arthurian period, the Franks had established themselves as the most prominent rulers. These included King Childeric I and his son King Clovis I. The latter ruled from 481 to 511, which would place him in the “Arthurian period.” After Clovis’s death, France again collapsed into numerous territories that were not re-united until the time of Charlemagne in the eighth century.
   According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, Arthur conquered France from Frollo during his reign. A number of other texts likewise tell us that it was under the rule of Arthur, and indeed, it seems that Arthurian heroes spent as much time here as anywhere. Many knights and kings that owed allegiance to Arthur came from Brittany. King Ban of Benoic, King Bors of Gannes, King Claudas of the Land Laid Waste, and the knights Lancelot, Hector, Blamor of Gannes, and Bleoberis of Gannes, as well as many others, all came from French lands. Arthur fought his war with the Lucius the Roman on French soil, in Normandy and Burgundy. The Prose Tristan features a King Faramon of France who apparently owed his allegiance to Uther Pendragon. In the Stanzaic Morte Arthur and in Malory, the country seems to belong to Lancelot, since he appoints Lionel its king when Arthur and Lancelot go to war.
   In Welsh legend, three of Arthur’s warriors are named as the “King of France”: Iona, Paris, and Gwilenhin. Arthur apparently has command of the country, for he summons all France’s warriors before the epic hunting of Twrch Trwyth. Der Pleier calls France’s king Linefles. [Culhwch, GeoffHR, Layamon, ProsTris, Stanz, Malory]


One of the noble Byzantine warriors that Alexander brought to Britain from Constantinople. He fought for Arthur in the battle against the traitorous Angres of Windsor. [ChretienC]


A Saxon duke who led a battalion of soldiers against Arthur at the battle of Clarence. [VulgMer]


The King of Friesland who allied with Mordred during the latter’s rebellion against Arthur. [Allit]

Freelenk [Frelent]

A Saxon warrior slain by Arthur at the battle of Carhaix. [VulgMer, Arthour]


A field in front of the Castle of the Enchantresses in Ireland where Anguish (Isolde’s father) called an Easter Tournament during Tristan’s first visit to the country. [Tavola]

Fregulla Vittorioso

The fortress belonging to Oris l’Aspro, a knight slain by Tristan. It was encircled by a deep river called the Tendorubia. [Tavola]

Frenicas [Ferican, Fernicans]

A Saxon king who joined Rions in the invasion of Camilyard. Arthur killed him at the battle of Aneblayse. [VulgMer, Arthour]

Fres Marés (“Fresh Pond”)

A large Irish castle belonging to a knight named Bedionés. Lancelot lodged at the fortress on his way to the castle of Rigomer. [Merveil]

Friam of Vermendoys

A duke and an ally or vassal of Gawain’s wife, Orgeluse. He was captured by Arthur’s knights at the battle of Logres. [Wolfram]


A boorish and treacherous prince of Punterteis in Der Pleier’s Garel von dem blühenden Tal. He was apparently once involved in the theft of Gawain’s horse. He could have freed Duke Eskilabon of Belamunt from an obligation to guard a garden, but did not keep his word. Der Pleier may have taken his name from Wolfram’s Friam, although the theft of Gringolet to which he alludes is committed in Wolfram by Urjans. [PleierG]

Friesland [Fres, Frisia]

A province of the north Netherlands, on the North Sea. Wace says that it was part of Arthur’s empire, and Layamon adds that it was ruled by Kailin. The Alliterative Morte Arthure names its king as Frederik, who joined Mordred’s rebellion against Arthur. [Wace, Layamon, Allit]


A Knight of the Round Table. [PleierG]


Perceval’s maternal grandfather. Frimutel was the son of Titurel, the brother of Rischoyde, and the father of Anfortas, Trevrizent, Repanse de Schoye, Schoysiane, and Herzeloyde. Like his father and his eldest son (Anfortas), Frimutel was a Grail King, but he abandoned his post to seek adventure. He died in a joust over a woman. [Wolfram]

Frion [Frisons]

The King of Dessemoume in Ireland in the French Les Merveilles de Rigomer. Lancelot rescued Frion’s daughter, Martha, from a pack of kidnappers, for which Frion offered Lancelot the girl and the kingdom. When Lancelot refused, Frion attempted to trick him into remaining in Dessemoume, but Lancelot recognized the ruse and departed. Frion later helped Arthur’s men conquer Rigomer castle. [Merveil]


An infidel count of Janfuse who served Feirefiz, Perceval’s half-brother. [Wolfram]


A European city near Acquilea through which Perceval’s uncle Trevrizent traveled. [Wolfram]


Son of Sir Floriant and Lady Florete. [Floriant]


A mischievous little hunchback dwarf who lived at the court of Mark of Cornwall. He seemed to have a fair knowledge of astronomy and ability with prophecy. He knew of Tristan’s and Isolde’s affair and took care to make Mark aware of it, deriving glee from the trouble he caused. He twice set up the lovers to be caught by Mark—both times, Mark came to disbelieve the dwarf in favor of his wife and nephew. The dwarf eventually got drunk, announced that Mark had the ears of a horse, and had his head swiped off by Mark as a result. He appears in Eilhart’s Tristrant as Acquitain and in Gottfried’s Tristan as Melot. [Beroul]

Frolle of the Out Isles

A knight was rescued by Lamorat from four knights who had attacked him all at once. Frolle left in a huff when Lamorat refused to reveal his name. Gawain abducted Frolle’s lady and was defeated in combat by Frolle. Lamorat, witnessing Gawain’s defeat, engaged Frolle to protect the honor of the Round Table. Frolle was killed in the duel. His brother Bellyas tried to avenge his death and failed. [Malory]

Frollo [Floires, Flollo, Follon, Freol, Froles, Froll(e)(s), Thomas Flollo, Fullon]

In Geoffrey of Monmouth’s Historia, the steward of France under Emperor Leo of Rome. When Arthur decided to conquer Gaul, Frollo raised an army to oppose him but suffered a crushing defeat. Arthur beat him back to Paris and would have starved Frollo’s army, but he agreed to Frollo’s proposal to decide the war in a single combat between Frollo and Arthur. The battle was long and difficult, and Arthur was very nearly defeated, but he eventually killed Frollo with Excalibur. Arthur then subjugated Gaul. In the Gesta Regum Britanniae, it is Merlin’s magic that saves Arthur during his fight with Frollo. Robert of Gloucester places the battle between Arthur and Frollo on an island.
   The Vulgate Merlin and Lancelot locate this story in a larger saga of Arthur’s battles against King Claudas and the Roman Pontius Anthony. Here, Frollo, the emperor or duke of Germany, Lamahna, or Gauna, join Anthony and Claudas in a war against Arthur, Ban and Bors. Arthur was victorious. Much later, Frollo challenged Arthur for control of Gaul with the results given by Geoffrey. Frollo’s son, Samaliel of Gauna, was knighted by Galahad. Palamedes names Frollo’s father as Ariohan. [GeoffHR, Wace, Layamon, VulgLanc, VulgMer, PostQuest, Palamedes, ProsTris, Gesta, RobertG]


In Thomas Hughes’ The Misfortunes of Arthur, a lady in Guinevere’s service who dissuaded the queen—who had committed bigamy with Mordred—from a plot to murder Arthur. [HughesT]


According to La Tavola Ritonda, when Charlemagne came to Britain, he found a statues of Galahad, Amoroldo, and other warriors in front of Leverzep. One of his noblemen took the sword hanging around Amoroldo’s statue and named it “Fulberta,” meaning “well-sharpened.” [Tavola]


A heathen king who led raids into King Mark’s England in the Icelandic Saga af Tristram ok Ísodd. Tristan met him in combat, but with a small force. Near defeat, Tristan swore before God to end his affair with Isolde if he should prevail. Fúlcus was soon dead, and Tristan left England for good to assume the throne of Spain. [SagaTI]


According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, a king of Britain in the third or second century BC. He succeeded his father, King Cherin, and was succeeded by his brothers, Kings Eldad and Andragius. According to John of Fordon, Fulgentius was an ancestor of Lot and Gawain. [GeoffHR, JohnF]


A heathen king slain by Arthur’s Sir Galescalain at the battle of Diana Bridge. [Arthour]


A madman whose mother, Occassion, encouraged him to attack passing knights. Sir Guyon came across Furor beating the squire Phedon. Guyon bound and gagged Occassion, and captured Furor. Guyon later allowed the brash knight Pyrochles to free Furor, who beat Pyrochles to unconsciousness. [Spenser]

Copyright Christopher Bruce. All Rights Reserved. Provided here by his kind permission. Layout of book modified to fit the Celtic Twilight format.