The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Part 5: A.D. 920 - 974
A.D. 920. This year, before midsummer, went King Edward to Maldon; and repaired and fortified the town, ere he departed
thence. And the same year went Earl Thurkytel over sea to Frankland with the men who would adhere to him, under the
protection and assistance of King Edward. This year Ethelfleda got into her power, with God's assistance, in the early part of
the year, without loss, the town of Leicester; and the greater part of the army that belonged thereto submitted to her. And
the Yorkists had also promised and confirmed, some by agreement and some with oaths, that they would be in her interest. But very
soon after they had done this, she departed, twelve nights before midsummer, at Tamworth, the eighth year that she was holding the
government of the Mercians with right dominion; and her body lieth at Glocester, in the east porch of St. Peter's church.
This year also was the daughter of Ethered, lord of the Mercians, deprived of all authority over the Mercians, and led into
Wessex, three weeks before midwinter. Her name was Healfwina.
A.D. 921. This year, before Easter, King Edward ordered his men to go to the town of Towcester, and to rebuild it. Then again,
after that, in the same year, during the gang-days, he ordered the town of Wigmore to be repaired. The same summer, betwixt
Lammas and midsummer, the army broke their parole from Northampton and from Leicester; and went thence northward to
Towcester, and fought against the town all day, and thought that they should break into it; but the people that were therein
defended it, till more aid came to them; and the enemy then abandoned the town, and went away. Then again, very soon after
this, they went out at night for plunder, and came upon men unaware, and seized not a little, both in men and cattle, betwixt
Burnham-wood and Aylesbury. At the same time went the army from Huntington and East-Anglia, and constructed that work at
Ternsford; which they inhabited and fortified; and abandoned the other at Huntingdon; and thought that they should thence oft with
war and contention recover a good deal of this land. Thence they advanced till they came to Bedford; where the men who were within
came out against them, and fought with them, and put them to flight, and slew a good number of them. Then again, after this,
a great army yet collected itself from East-Anglia and from Mercia, and went to the town of Wigmore; which they besieged
without, and fought against long in the day; and took the cattle about it; but the men defended the town, who were within; and
the enemy left the town, and went away. After this, the same summer, a large force collected itself in King Edward's dominions, from
the nighest towns that could go thither, and went to Temsford; and they beset the town, and fought thereon; until they broke
into it, and slew the king, and Earl Toglos, and Earl Mann his son, and his brother, and all them that were therein, and who
were resolved to defend it; and they took the others, and all that was therein. After this, a great force collected soon in
harvest, from Kent, from Surrey, from Essex, and everywhere from the nighest towns; and went to Colchester, and beset the town,
and fought thereon till they took it, and slew all the people, and seized all that was therein; except those men who escaped
therefrom over the wall. After this again, this same harvest,
a great army collected itself from East-Anglia, both of the land-forces and of the pirates, which they had enticed to their
assistance, and thought that they should wreak their vengeance. They went to Maldon, and beset the town, and fought thereon,
until more aid came to the townsmen from without to help. The enemy then abandoned the town, and went from it. And the men
went after, out of the town, and also those that came from without to their aid; and put the army to flight, and slew many
hundreds of them, both of the pirates and of the others. Soon after this, the same harvest, went King Edward with the
West-Saxon army to Passham; and sat there the while that men fortified the town of Towcester with a stone wall. And there
returned to him Earl Thurferth, and the captains, and all the army that belonged to Northampton northward to the Welland, and
sought him for their lord and protector. When this division of the army went home, then went another out, and marched to the
town of Huntingdon; and repaired and renewed it, where it was broken down before, by command of King Edward. And all the
people of the country that were left submitted to King Edward, and sought his peace and protection. After this, the same year,
before Martinmas, went King Edward with the West-Saxon army to Colchester; and repaired and renewed the town, where it was
broken down before. And much people turned to him. both in East-Anglia and in Essex, that were before under the power of the
Danes. And all the army in East-Anglia swore union with him; that they would all that he would, and would protect all that
he protected, either by sea or land. And the army that belonged
to Cambridge chose him separately for their lord and protector, and confirmed the same with oaths, as he had advised. This year King
Edward repaired the town of Gladmouth; and the same year King Sihtric slew Neil his brother.
A.D. 922. This year, betwixt gang-days and midsummer, went King Edward with his army to Stamford, and ordered the town to be
fortified on the south side of the river. And all the people that belonged to the northern town submitted to him, and sought
him for their lord. It was whilst he was tarrying there, that Ethelfleda his sister died at Tamworth, twelve nights before
midsummer. Then rode he to the borough of Tamworth; and all the population in Mercia turned to him, who before were subject to
Ethelfleda. And the kings in North-Wales, Howel, and Cledauc, and Jothwel, and all the people of North-Wales, sought him for
their lord. Then went he thence to Nottingham, and secured that borough, and ordered it to be repaired, and manned both with
English and with Danes. And all the population turned to him, that was settled in Mercia, both Danish and English.
A.D. 923. This year went King Edward with an army, late in the harvest, to Thelwall; and ordered the borough to be repaired,
and inhabited, and manned. And he ordered another army also from
the population of Mercia, the while he sat there to go to Manchester in Northumbria, to repair and to man it. This year died
Archbishop Plegmund; and King Reynold won York.
A.D. 924. This year, before midsummer, went King Edward with
an army to Nottingham; and ordered the town to be repaired on the south side of the river, opposite the other, and the bridge over
the Trent betwixt the two towns. Thence he went to Bakewell in Peakland; and ordered a fort to be built as near as possible to
it, and manned. And the King of Scotland, with all his people, chose him as father and lord; as did Reynold, and the son of
Eadulf, and all that dwell in Northumbria, both English and Danish, both Northmen and others; also the king of the
Strathclydwallians, and all his people.
[A.D. 924. This year Edward was chosen for father and for lord by the king of the Scots, and by the Scots, and King Reginald,
and by all the North-humbrians, and also the king of the Strath-clyde Britons, and by all the Strath-clyde Britons.]
[A.D. 924. This year King Edward died among the Mercians at Farndon; and very shortly, about sixteen days after this, Elward
his son died at Oxford; and their bodies lie at Winchester. And Athelstan was chosen king by the Mercians, and consecrated at
Kingston. And he gave his sister to Ofsae (Otho), son of the king of the Old-Saxons.]
A.D. 925. This year died King Edward at Farndon in Mercia; and Elward his son died very soon after this, in Oxford. Their
bodies lie at Winchester. And Athelstan was chosen king in Mercia, and consecrated at Kingston. He gave his sister to
Otho, son of the king of the Old-Saxons. St. Dunstan was now born;
and Wulfhelm took to the archbishopric in Canterbury. This year King Athelstan and Sihtric king of the Northumbrians came together
at Tamworth, the sixth day before the calends of February, and Athelstan gave away his sister to him.
[A.D. 925. This year Bishop Wulfhelm was consecrated. And that same year King Edward died.]
A.D. 926. This year appeared fiery lights in the northern part of the firmament; and Sihtric departed; and King Athelstan took
to the kingdom of Northumbria, and governed all the kings that were in this island: -- First, Howel, King of West-Wales; and
Constantine, King of the Scots; and Owen, King of Monmouth; and Aldred, the son of Eadulf, of Bamburgh. And with covenants and
oaths they ratified their agreement in the place called Emmet,
on the fourth day before the ides of July; and renounced all idolatry, and afterwards returned in peace.
A.D. 927. This year King Athelstan expelled King Guthfrith; and Archbishop Wulfhelm went to Rome.
A.D. 928. William took to Normandy, and held it fifteen years.
[A.D. 931. This year died Frithstan, Bishop of Winchester, and Brinstan was blessed in his place.]
A.D. 932. This year Burnstan was invested Bishop of Winchester on the fourth day before the calends of June; and he held the
bishopric two years and a half.
A.D. 933. This year died Bishop Frithestan; and Edwin the atheling was drowned in the sea.
A.D. 934. This year went King Athelstan into Scotland, both with a land-force and a naval armament, and laid waste a great part
of it; and Bishop Burnstan died at Winchester at the feast of All Saints.
A.D. 935. This year Bishop Elfheah took to the bishopric of Winchester.
[A.D. 937. This year King Athelstan and Edmund his brother led a force to Brumby, and there fought against Anlaf; and, Christ
helping, had the victory: and they there slew five kings and seven earls.]
A.D. 938. Here
of earls the lord,
rewarder of heroes,
and his brother eke,
elder of ancient race,
slew in the fight,
with the edge of their swords,
the foe at Brumby!
The sons of Edward
their board-walls clove,
and hewed their banners,
with the wrecks of their hammers.
So were they taught
by kindred zeal,
that they at camp oft
'gainst any robber
their land should defend,
their hoards and homes.
the Scottish clans;
the men of the fleet
in numbers fell;
'midst the din of the field
the warrior swate.
Since the sun was up
glad over grounds,
God's candle bright,
eternal Lord! --
'till the noble creature
sat in the western main:
there lay many
of the Northern heroes
under a shower of arrows,
shot over shields;
and Scotland's boast,
a Scythian race,
the mighty seed of Mars!
With chosen troops,
throughout the day,
the West-Saxons fierce
press'd on the loathed bands;
hew'd down the fugitives,
and scatter'd the rear,
with strong mill-sharpen'd blades,
The Mercians too
the hard hand-play
spared not to any
of those that with Anlaf
over the briny deep
in the ship's bosom
sought this land
for the hardy fight.
Five kings lay
on the field of battle,
in bloom of youth,
pierced with swords.
So seven eke
of the earls of Anlaf;
and of the ship's-crew
There was dispersed
the little band
of hardy Scots,
the dread of northern hordes;
urged to the noisy deep
by unrelenting fate!
The king of the fleet
with his slender craft
escaped with his life
on the felon flood; --
and so too Constantine,
the valiant chief,
returned to the north
in hasty flight.
The hoary Hildrinc
cared not to boast
among his kindred.
Here was his remnant
of relations and friends
slain with the sword
in the crowded fight.
His son too he left
on the field of battle,
mangled with wounds,
young at the fight.
The fair-hair'd youth
had no reason to boast
of the slaughtering strife.
Nor old Inwood
and Anlaf the more
with the wrecks of their army
could laugh and say,
that they on the field
of stern command
better workmen were,
in the conflict of banners,
the clash of spears,
the meeting of heroes,
and the rustling of weapons,
which they on the field
of slaughter played
with the sons of Edward.
The northmen sail'd
in their nailed ships,
a dreary remnant,
on the roaring sea;
over deep water
Dublin they sought,
and Ireland's shores,
in great disgrace.
Such then the brothers
king and atheling,
sought their country,
in right triumphant.
They left behind them
raw to devour,
the sallow kite,
the swarthy raven
with horny nib,
and the hoarse vultur,
with the eagle swift
to consume his prey;
the greedy gos-hawk,
and that grey beast
the wolf of the weald.
No slaughter yet
was greater made
e'er in this island,
of people slain,
before this same,
with the edge of the sword;
as the books inform us
of the old historians;
since hither came
from the eastern shores
the Angles and Saxons,
over the broad sea,
and Britain sought, --
o'ercame the Welsh,
most valiant earls,
and gained the land.
A.D. 941. This year King Athelstan died in Glocester, on the sixth day before the calends of November, about forty-one
winters, bating one night, from the time when King Alfred died. And Edmund Atheling took to the kingdom. He was then eighteen
years old. King Athelstan reigned fourteen years and ten weeks. This year the Northumbrians abandoned their allegiance, and chose
Anlaf of Ireland for their king.
[A.D. 941. This year King Edmund received King Anlaf at baptism; and that same year, a good long space after, he received
King Reginald at the bishop's hands.]
A.D. 942. Here
of Angles lord,
protector of friends,
author and framer
of direful deeds.
o'erran with speed
the Mercian land.
whete'er the course
or Humber deep,
The broad brim-stream,
divides five towns.
Leicester and Lincoln.
Nottingham and Stamford,
and Derby eke.
In thraldom long
to Norman Danes
they bowed through need,
and dragged the chains
of heathen men;
till, to his glory,
great Edward's heir,
Edmund the king,
refuge of warriors,
their fetters broke.
A.D. 943. This year Anlaf stormed Tamworth; and much slaughter was made on either hand; but the Danes had the victory, and led
away with them much plunder. There was Wulfrun taken, in the spoiling of the town. This year King Edmund beset King Anlaf
and Archbishop Wulfstan in Leicester; and he might have conquered them, were it not that they burst out of the town in the night.
After this Anlaf obtained the friendship of King Edmund, and King Edmund then received King Anlaf in baptism; and he made him royal
presents. And the same year, after some interval, he received King Reynold at episcopal hands. This year also died King Anlaf.
A.D. 944. This year King Edmund reduced all the land of the Northumbrians to his dominion, and expelled two kings, Anlaf the
son of Sihtric, and Reynold the son of Guthferth.
A.D. 945. This year King Edmund overran all Cumberland; and let it all to Malcolm king of the Scots, on the condition that he
became his ally, both by sea and land.
A.D. 946. This year King Edmund died, on St. Augustine's mass day. That was widely known, how he ended his days: -- that Leof
stabbed him at Pucklechurch. And Ethelfleda of Damerham, daughter of Alderman Elgar, was then his queen. And he reigned
six years and a half: and then succeeded to the kingdom Edred Atheling his brother, who soon after reduced all the land of the
Northumbrians to his dominion; and the Scots gave him oaths, that they would do all that he desired.
A.D. 947. This year came King Edred to Tadden's-cliff; and there Archbishop Wulfstan and all the council of the Northumbrians
bound themselves to an allegiance with the king. And within a little space they abandoned all, both allegiance and oaths.
A.D. 948. This year King Edred overran all Northumberland; because they had taken Eric for their king; and in the pursuit
of plunder was that large minster at Rippon set on fire, which St. Wilferth built. As the king returned homeward, he overtook the
enemy at York; but his main army was behind at Chesterford. There was great slaughter made; and the king was so wroth, that
he would fain return with his force, and lay waste the land withal; but when the council of the Northumbrians understood
that, they then abandoned Eric, and compromised the deed with King Edred.
A.D. 949. This year came Anlaf Curran to the land of the Northumbrians.
A.D. 951. This year died Elfeah, Bishop of Winchester, on St. Gregory's mass day.
A.D. 952. This year the Northumbrians expelled King Anlaf, and received Eric the son of Harold. This year also King Edred
ordered Archbishop Wulfstan to be brought into prison at Jedburgh; because he was oft bewrayed before the king: and the
same year the king ordered a great slaughter to be made in the town of Thetford, in revenge of the abbot, whom they had formerly
A.D. 954. This year the Northumbrians expelled Eric; and King Edred took to the government of the Northumbrians. This year
also Archbishop Wulfstan received a bishopric again at Dorchester.
A.D. 955. This year died King Edred, on St. Clement's mass day, at Frome.(41) He reigned nine years and a half; and he rests
in the old minster. Then succeeded Edwy, the son of King Edmund,
to the government of the West-Saxons; and Edgar Atheling, his brother, succeeded to the government of the Mercians. They were
the sons of King Edmund and of St. Elfgiva.
[A.D. 955. And Edwy succeeded to the kingdom of the West-Saxons, and Edgar his brother succeeded to the kingdom of the
Mercians: and they were the sons of King Edmund and of S. Elfgiva.]
A.D. 956. This year died Wulfstan, Archbishop of York, on the seventeenth day before the calends of January; and he was buried
at Oundle; and in the same year was Abbot Dunstan driven out of this land over sea.
A.D. 958. This year Archbishop Oda separated King Edwy and Elfgiva; because they were too nearly related.
A.D. 959. This year died King Edwy, on the calends of October; and Edgar his brother took to the government of the West-Saxons,
Mercians, and Northumbrians. He was then sixteen years old.
It was in this year he sent after St. Dunstan, and gave him the bishopric of Worcester; and afterwards the bishopric of London.
In his days
it prosper'd well;
and God him gave,
that he dwelt in peace
the while that he lived.
Whate'er he did,
whate'er he plan'd,
he earn'd his thrift.
He also rear'd
God's glory wide,
and God's law lov'd,
with peace to man,
above the kings
that went before
in man's remembrance.
God so him sped,
that kings and earls
to all his claims
and to his will
without a blow
he wielded all
as pleased himself.
Esteem'd he was
both far and wide
in distant lands;
because he prized
the name of God,
and God's law traced,
God's glory rear'd,
both far and wide,
on every side.
Wisely he sought
in council oft
his people's good,
before his God,
before the world.
One misdeed he did,
too much however,
that foreign tastes
he loved too much;
and heathen modes
into this land
he brought too fast;
and to this earth
of vicious men.
But God him grant,
that his good deeds
be weightier far
than his misdeeds,
to his soul's redemption
on the judgment-day.
A.D. 961. This year departed Odo, the good archbishop, and St. Dunstan took to
the archbishopric. This year also died Elfgar, a relative of the king, in
Devonshire; and his body lies at Wilton: and King Sifferth killed himself; and
his body lies at Wimborn. This year there was a very great pestilence; when the
great fever was in London; and St. Paul's minster was consumed with fire, and in
the same year was afterwards restored. In this year Athelmod. the masspriest,
went to Rome, and there died on the eighteenth before the calends of September.
A.D. 963. This year died Wulfstan, the deacon, on Childermass-day; (42) and
afterwards died Gyric, the mass-priest. In the same year took Abbot Athelwold to
the bishopric of Winchester; and he was consecrated on the vigil of St. Andrew,
which happened on a Sunday. On the second year after he was consecrated, he made
many minsters; and drove out the clerks (43) from the bishopric, because they
would hold no rule, and set monks therein. He made there two abbacies; one of
monks, another of nuns. That was all within Winchester. Then came he afterwards
to King Edgar, and requested that he would give him all the minsters that
heathen men had before destroyed; for that he would renew them. This the king
cheerfully granted; and the bishop came then first to Ely, where St. Etheldritha
lies, and ordered the minster to be repaired; which he gave to a monk of his,
whose name was Britnoth, whom he consecrated abbot: and there he set monks to
serve God, where formerly were nuns. He then bought many villages of the king,
and made it very rich. Afterwards came Bishop Athelwold to the minster called
Medhamsted, which was formerly ruined by heathen folk; but he found there
nothing but old walls, and wild woods. In the old walls at length he found hid
writings which Abbot Hedda had formerly written; -- how King Wulfhere and
Ethelred his brother had wrought it, and how they freed it against king and
against bishop, and against all worldly service; and how Pope Agatho confirmed
it with his writ, as also Archbishop Deusdedit. He then ordered the minster to
be rebuilt; and set there an abbot, who was called Aldulf; and made monks, where
before was nothing. He then came to the king, and let him look at the writings
which before were found; and the king then answered and said: "I Edgar
grant and give to-day, before God and before Archbishop Dunstan, freedom to St.
Peter's minster at Medhamsted, from king and from bishop; and all the thorps
that thereto lie; that is, Eastfield, and Dodthorp, and Eye, and Paston. And so
I free it, that no bishop have any jurisdiction there, but the abbot of the
minster alone. And I give the town called Oundle, with all that thereto lieth,
called Eyot-hundred, with market and toll; so freely, that neither king, nor
bishop, nor earl, nor sheriff, have there any jurisdiction; nor any man but the
abbot alone, and whom he may set thereto. And I give to Christ and St. Peter,
and that too with the advice of Bishop Athelwold, these lands; -- that is,
Barrow, Warmington, Ashton, Kettering, Castor, Eylesworth, Walton, Witherington,
Eye, Thorp, and a minster at Stamford. These lands and al the others that belong
to the minster I bequeath clear; that is, with sack and sock, toll and team, and
infangthief; these privileges and all others bequeath I clear to Christ and St.
Peter. And I give the two parts of Whittlesey-mere, with waters and with wears
and fens; and so through Meerlade along to the water that is called Nen; and so
eastward to Kingsdelf. And I will that there be a market in the town itself, and
that no other be betwixt Stamford and Huntingdon. And I will that thus be given
the toll; -- first, from Whittlesey-mere to the king's toll of Norman-cross
hundred; then backward again from Whittlesey-mere through Meerlade along to the
Nen, and as that river runs to Crowland; and from Crowland to Must, and from
Must to Kingsdelf and to Whittlesey-mere. And I will that all the freedom, and
all the privileges, that my predecessors gave, should remain; and I write and
confirm this with the rood-token of Christ." (+) -- Then answered Dunstan,
the Archbishop of Canterbury, and said: "I grant, that all the things that
here are given and spoken, and all the things that thy predecessors and mine
have given, shall remain firm; and whosoever breaketh it, then give I him God's
curse, and that of all saints, and of all hooded heads, and mine, unless he come
to repentance. And I give expressly to St. Peter my mass-hackle, and my stole,
and my reef, to serve Christ." "I Oswald, Archbishop of York, confirm
all these words through the holy rood on which Christ was crucified." (+)
"I Bishop Athelwold bless all that maintain this, and I excommunicate all
that break it, unless they come to repentance." -- Here was Bishop Ellstan,
Bishop Athulf, and Abbot Eskwy, and Abbot Osgar, and Abbot Ethelgar, and
Alderman Elfere; .Alderman Ethelwin, Britnoth and Oslac aldermen, and many other
rich men; and all confirmed it and subscribed it with the cross of Christ. (+)
This was done in the year after our Lord's Nativity 972, the sixteenth year of
this king. Then bought the Abbot Aldulf lands rich and many, and much endowed
the minster withal; and was there until Oswald, Archbishop of York, was dead;
and then he was chosen to be archbishop. Soon after another abbot was chosen of
the same monastery, whose name was Kenulf, who was afterwards Bishop of
Winchester. He first made the wall about the minster, and gave it then the name
of Peterborough, which before was Medhamsted. He was there till he was appointed
Bishop of Winchester, when another abbot was chosen of the same monastery, whose
name was Elfsy, who continued abbot fifty winters afterwards. It was he who took
up St. Kyneburga and St. Kyneswitha, that lay at Castor, and St. Tibba, that lay
at Ryhall; and brought them to Peterborough, and offered them all to St. Peter
in one day, and preserved them all the while he was there.
[A.D. 963. This year, by King Edgar, St. Ethelwold was chosen to the bishoprick
at Winchester. And the Archbishop of Canterbury, St. Dunstan, consecrated him
bishop on the first Sunday of Advent; that was on the third before the kalends
A.D. 964. This year drove King Edgar the priests of Winchester out of the old
minster, and also out of the new minster; and from Chertsey; and from Milton;
and replaced them with monks. And he appointed Ethelgar abbot to the new minster,
and Ordbert to Chertsey, and Cyneward to Milton.
[A.D. 964. This year were the canons driven out of the Old-minster by King
Edgar, and also from the New-minster, and from Chertsey and from Milton; and he
appointed thereto monks and abbots: to the New-minster Ethelgar, to Chertsey
Ordbert, to Milton Cyneward.]
A.D. 965. This year King Edgar took Elfrida for his queen, who was daughter of
A.D. 966. This year Thored, the son of Gunner, plundered Westmorland; and the
same year Oslac took to the aldermanship.
A.D. 969. This year King Edgar ordered all Thanet-land to be plundered.
A.D. 970. This year died Archbishop Oskytel; who was first consecrated diocesan
bishop at Dorchester, and afterwards it was by the consent of King Edred and all
his council that he was consecrated Archbishop of York. He was bishop two and
twenty winters; and he died on Alhallow-mas night, ten nights before Martinmas,
at Thame. Abbot Thurkytel, his relative, carried the bishop's body to Bedford,
because he was the abbot there at that time.
A.D. 971. This year died Edmund Atheling, and his body lies at Rumsey.
[A.D. 972. This year Edgar the etheling was consecrated king at Bath, on
Pentecost's mass-day, on the fifth before the ides of May, the thirteenth year
since he had obtained the kingdom; and he was then one less than thirty years of
age. And soon after that, the king led all his ship-forces to Chester; and there
came to meet him six kings, and they all plighted their troth to him, that they
would be his fellow-workers by sea and by land.]
A.D. 973. Here was Edgar, of Angles lord,
with courtly pomp
hallow'd to king
the ancient city;
whose modern sons,
have named her BATH.
Much bliss was there
by all enjoyed
on that happy day,
by men below.
A crowd of priests,
a throng of monks,
in counsel sage,
were gather'd there.
Then were agone
ten hundred winters
of number'd years
from the birth of Christ,
the lofty king,
guardian of light,
save that thereto
there yet was left
as writings say,
seven and twenty.
So near had run
of the lord of triumphs
a thousand years,
when this was done.
Nine and twenty
hard winters there
of irksome deeds
had Edmund's son
seen in the world,
when this took place,
and on the thirtieth
was hallow'd king. (43)
Soon after this the king led all his marine force to Chester; and there came to
meet him six kings; and they all covenanted with him, that they would be his
allies by sea and by land.
(41) So I understand the word. Gibson, from Wheloc, says --
"in aetatis vigore;" a fact contradicted by the statement of almost every historian.
Names of places seldom occur in old MSS. with capital initials.
(42) i.e. the feast of the Holy Innocents; a festival of great antiquity.
(43) i.e. the secular clergy, who observed no rule; opposed to the regulars, or monks.